The Main Task Today is the Struggle to Build Up the True Revolutionary Party Through Uncompromising Struggle Against Revisionism


Charu Mazumdar

December 8, 1966

The Party leaders after long imprisonment, after the Party Congress, for the first time had a session of the full Central Committee. The central leadership of the party which was formed through struggles against revisionism, adopted an ideological resolution and declared bluntly that all the criticisms made against the Indian government by the great Chinese Party were wrong. At the same time they have stated in the resolution that criticism of Soviet revisionist leadership should not be made public now, as otherwise the people’s faith in socialism will decrease. That is, the mask must not be torn off the attempt that is being made by the Soviet revisionist leadership in collaboration with the U.S. imperialism to establish world hegemony.

The leader of the Great Chinese Revolution, the Communist Party of China, and its leader Com. Mao Tsetung, are leading today the proletariat and revolutionary struggles of the world. After Lenin, Comrade Mao Tsetung has today filled Lenin’s position. So the struggle against revisionism cannot be carried out by opposing the Chinese Party and Com. Mao Tsetung. The purity of Marxism-Leninism cannot be maintained. By opposing the Chinese Party, the Indian Party leadership has forsaken the revolutionary path of Marxism-Leninism. They are trying to pass off revisionism by putting it into a new bottle. So Party members should understand this clearly today that in the struggle against revisionism, this Party leadership is not at all our comrade-in-arms, not even an associate.

Soviet revisionist leadership in collaboration with the US imperialism is today trying for world hegemony. They are acting as enemies of every national liberation movement today. They are trying to establish the revisionist leadership by splitting the revolutionary parties and are shamelessly acing as agents of the US imperialism. They are today the enemies of the people’s liberation struggles in every country, enemies of the revolutionary struggles, enemies of revolutionary China, even the enemies of the Soviet people. So no struggles against American imperialism can be made without carrying out an open struggle against this Soviet revisionist leadership. It is impossible to lead the anti-imperialist struggle if it is not realized that the Soviet revisionist leadership is not a partner in the anti-imperialist struggle. The party leadership, far from following this path is rather trying to convince the people through different writings that the Soviet leadership, in spite of a few mistakes, is basically opposing the policies of the Indian government, and is still moving along the path of socialism. That is, they are trying to conceal in a cunning manner the fact that the Soviet leadership is transforming the Soviet Socialist State into a capitalist state gradually and that the Soviet-American collaboration itself is because of that.

So, in the political and organizational analysis of India during the last two years, there has been no mention of imperialist, particularly American imperialist interference, although from Johnson to Humphrey, all the representatives of US imperialism have repeatedly declared that they will use India as a base against China. Such an important question did not come to the notice of the Central Committee at all. So in the political and organizational resolution, no word of caution has been uttered for party members against the imperialist counter-offensive. On the contrary, after reading the entire resolution it appears that there has been no particular change in the situation; that in some cases rigours have increased and they can be fought through ordinary movements. The Party leadership is absolutely silent about the new feature in the struggles during the last two years — the expression of revolutionary violence against counter-revolutionary violence — this new emerging trend of mass movements. They posed the questions of mass movement in such a way that the simple conclusion that follows from it is that our main aim during the coming elections will be to establish a non-congress democratic government. In no part of their resolution it was mentioned that this election was being held to hide the exploitation and indirect rule by imperialism. The reactionary government of India through this election wants to spread constitutional illusion and behind that, under imperialist instructions wants to build up our country as a counter-revolutionary base of South East Asia, and wants to stem the resistance of the people by violent attacks on the revolutionary sections of the masses. The experience of Indonesia has taught us how violent today dying imperialism can become. It was the responsibility of the Party leadership to prepare the Party members to face this situation and to hold up clearly that the only way was revolutionary violence and to organize the entire Party on that basis. The leadership of the Indian Party not only did not do this work, but it has also made any talk about revolutionary resistance illegal within the party.

The party leadership is raising the hue and cry of adventurism whenever it hears about “revolutionary resistance” or “armed struggle” But at the same time they indiscriminately use the words “dehoarding of stocks,” “gherao,” “continuous stride,” etc. But whenever there is any talk about resisting the repression that invariably follows these struggling tactics, they regard it as adventurism. The slogan of “State-wide continuous strike” is nothing else but a petty-bourgeois like ultra-Leftist slogan. On the one hand this ultra-Leftist slogan and on the other, in regard to the political question, a desperate desire to forge unity in the electoral field which means acting as an appendage of the bourgeoisie.

So this Party leadership is refusing to take the responsibility of the democratic revolution of India and as a result of that they are resorting to the cunning tactics of modern revisionism, that is, the path of being revolutionaries in words and an appendage of the bourgeosie in deeds. So the revolutionary party can come up only through the destruction of the present party system and its democratic framework. So to abide by the so called ‘form’ or “constitutional frame work” of this party, means to render Marxist-Leninists ineffective and to co-operate with the revisionist leadership.

So from the party leadership to the ordinary workers, all those who believe in Marxism-Leninism, must come forward before the party members with the revolutionary views of Marxism-Leninism. Only then we can start work on building the revolutionary Party. The Indian government has been forced to retreat in the face of the India-wide mass outburst. As a result, the scope of democratic movement has increased in the period preceding the elections. The government is organizing the counter-revolutionary forces in this period. The revolutionary forces also will have to take full advantage of this apparently democratic atmosphere. The fighting tactics adopted by the masses during the recent mass movements, were nothing but “partisan” struggles of an initial stage. So the revolutionary forces must lead in an organized manner those “partisan” struggles and before the massive counter-revolutionary offensive starts, Party members must be well-trained in the tactics of these struggles through theories and concrete application.

The meaning of the Party Activist Groups today is that they will be “combat units”. Their main duty will be political propaganda campaign and to strike against counter-revolutionary forces. We should always keep in mind Mao Tsetung’s teaching — “Attacks are not for the sake of attacking merely, attacks are for annihilating only”. Those who should be attacked are mainly: (1) the representatives of the state machinery like police, military officers; (2) the hated bureaucracy; (3) class enemies. The aim of these attacks should also be the collection of arms. In the present age these attacks can be launched everywhere, in cities and in the countryside. Our special attention should be paid especially to peasant areas.

In the post-election period, when the counter revolutionary offensive will assume a massive character, our main base will have to be established in the peasant areas. So immediately now, we shall have to clearly put up before our organization this view that with the development of sense of responsibility among working class and revolutionary petti-bourgeois cadres, they will have to go to the villages immediately. So with the development of the sense of responsibility among the working class and petty bourgeois cadres, they will have to be sent to the villages. In the period of counter-revolutionary offensive, our main tactics of struggle will be that of Great China, the tactics of encircling the cities with villages. How fast we can silence the counter-revolutionary offensive depends on how soon we can build up the people’s armed forces. It is true that in the beginning, we can achieve some success, but in the face of massive counter-revolutionary offensive, we shall have to retaliate in the interest of self-preservation alone. Through this long-drawn difficult struggle, the People’s Revolutionary Army will grow up — the army which is inspired by political consciousness, and made firm through political campaign movements and encounters. Without this type of an army, it is not possible to make the revolution successful, it is not possible to protect the interests of the masses.

Comrades, instead of running behind spontaneous movements, partisan struggles will have to be developed in an organized manner today. Not even six months are left. If we cannot begin this struggle within this period, we shall have to confront the difficult task of organizing in the face of imperialist attacks.

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People’s War in India Clippings 21/3/2016


Arrest in Aurangabad.

Maoist’s body found

Police believe the man died while planting an IED

The body of a Maoist Area Committee Member (ACM), killed during accidental blast of a landmine, was recovered in Pottangi police station area of Koraput district in Odisha on Sunday morning. It was suspected that he had died because of a blast that occurred while the Maoists were trying to plant an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) at this remote place to target security forces. The mutilated body was recovered from a place near Ralegada on Rajakuda-Kodeipadu road. Speaking to The Hindu , Koraput Superintendent of Police C. S. Meena said some surrendered Naxalites identified the deceased to be an active Maoist of ACM rank of Andhra Odisha Border Special Zonal Committee (AOBSZC). Evidences hinted that the man had died while planting the landmine. Localites had heard the blast late on Saturday evening. In the morning the mutilated body was recovered from the spot. The region is Maoist-infested and a BSF camp is located near Pottangi. The police believe the man died while planting an Imrovised Explosive Device (IED).

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March 17th: Mobilization and struggle with a class character-FDLP


Extracted unofficial translation by Signalfire

On this March 17th, the exploited working masses with a high level of awareness once again carried out a combative mobilization against the fascist reformist and corporatist regime of the Alianza País.

The deep crisis of Correa’s regime, is not as he claims,due to low oil prices in the international market, but because of the crisis of bureaucratic capitalism, the structural weakness of the economy and policy of the country which today blatantly and cruelly shows its face: The increase of unemployment: 6 out of ten Ecuadorians do not work or if they do they are underemployed, informality, super-exploitation, wages below the subsistence minimum, etc. High cost of living, high levels of popular indebtedness unconventional financing (usury), anguish and despair in the homes of the people at the inability to reproduce their labor power or to reach the most basic decent living conditions. Criminalization of popular protest and organization, and as if that were not enough, the reduction of the minimum wage (a basic basket of $ 700) overlapping with a reduction in working hours.

Few regimes have worked this well on the basis of imperialism. Few regimes have worked for the benefit of the big bourgeoisie as well as that of Rafael Correa. The reconstruction of the old state, in order to somewhat invigorate bureaucratic capitalism demanded a government of this type, if it is true it has had paternalist behavior, carried out work of visual impact to the masses, etc., it has first of all strengthened the capacity of the classes who hold power to put the burden of the crisis of the state onto the shoulders of the majority.

But to every step of regime fascism, the masses also give their response. We are improving our level of organization. We will strengthen the class line within the trade union movement….

In the city of Ibarra, the Front for the Defense of the Workers of Imbabura carried out a important and massive mobilization, showing its rejection and condemnation of the regime and the latest measures formulated in the new labor law.

But what makes this different from other mobilizations? A lot. First, because the march led by conscious workers expressed the clearest class independence in its organization, in in its demands, and above all in its political and ideological line…


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HBDH calls upon peoples to fill the squares and celebrate Newroz




Peoples’ United Revolutionary Movement (HBDH) issued a written statement on Newroz where it described this year’s celebration as a holiday of freedom, unity and resistance. HBDH congratulated the Newroz of Kurdish and all other peoples, and saluted the members of the ongoing resistance against fascism. The movement commemorated Mazlum Doğan and other martyrs who have transformed Newroz into a day of freedom and resistance.

In its statement, HBDH said that peoples were welcoming Newroz in the resistance spirit of Gezi, Cizre and Sur, and defying the bans of AKP fascism and the Turkish Republic by taking the democratic, revolutionary and anti-fascist resistance to the streets.


HBDH stated that its aim was to unite the peoples for the revolution, and its establishment on March 12 was a ray of hope that inflicted a heavy blow against the comprador AKP fascism. The movement noted that the AKP dictatorship’s savage attacks everywhere including Yüksekova, Şırnak, Nusaybin, İstanbul and İzmir targeted all oppressed groups, primarily women, the youth, workers and laborers. HBDH noted that the state’s practices of oppression, arrest and massacre have been wide-spread and transformed Turkey into a police state where academics wanting freedom and peace are arrested and Newroz celebrations are banned. The movement argued that no intensity level of fascist state terror would save Tayyip Erdoğan, the AKP government and the fascist state system, and peoples would defy the bans of AKP fascism in the resistance spirit of Gezi, Cizre and Sur. HBDH stated that Newroz was not a celebration requiring permission, and could not be banned by fascist and reactionary forces.

Lastly, the movement congratulated the Newroz of all peoples, and called upon everyone including workers, laborers, women and the youth to celebrate the holiday in hundreds of thousands across Kurdistan and Turkey.

Via ANF News

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India: Arrest of Dr Saibal Jana of Shaheed Hospital (at Dalli Rajhara)


We are writing to express our grave concern regarding the arrest of human rights defender Dr. Saibal Jana, chief physician of Shaheed Hospital at Dalli Rajhara by the Chhattisgarh police. Dr. Jana has been charged under sections 147,148,149,333 &152 of Indian Penal Code. PC. The latest arrest of Dr. Saibal Jana in Chhattisgarh has only brought to the fore the extremely precarious condition of social activists, lawyers, journalists and human rights defenders in the state who are regularly harassed, intimidated, attacked and falsely implicated for raising their voices against human rights abuses.

Source of Information on the Incident:

The Coordinator of HRDA for the East of India Media Reports

Status of Human Rights Defenders:

Dr Saibal Jana is a chief physician at Shaheed Hospital in Dalli Rajhara city in district Balod of Chhattisgarh. The hospital was founded by Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha, led by Late Shankar Guha Niyogi and run by money collected from the workers of the area. Dr. Jena, along with Dr. Ashis Kundu came to Dalli Rajhara in 1977, soon after he passed out from the National Medical College, Kolkata. They along with Dr. Vinayak Sen opted to live among the mineworkers. Dr. Jana along with Dr. Binayak Sen and Dr. Asish Kundu has been instrumental in setting up the Shaheed Hospital. At the time of the struggle of mine workers, Dr. Jana was a member of the central decision making committee of the Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha, a political platform organising industrial and mine workers, agricultural workers and adivasis of the region. Dr Jana has served the people of Chhattisgarh selflessly for over three decades.

The Perpetrators:

Chhattisgarh police of Durg district

Date of Incident:

17th March, 2016.

Place of Incident:

Additional Session Judge Court premises, Durg city, district Durg, Chhattisgarh

Incident detail:

According to sources, Dr. Saibal Jana along with four other persons appeared before the chief judicial magistrate (CJM), Durg on March 16, 2016, in connection with a warrant that was issued almost 24 years back. They approached the court with the genuine assumption that they would be given regular bail as many others had already been released at different point of time. But the CJM rejected the bail application and asked them to file the appeal on March 17, 2016, before the Additional Session Judge in Durg city. The Additional Session Judge granted bail to four others but kept Dr. Jana’s matter under consideration and sent him in judicial custody.

Dr. Saibla Jana’s arrest came in a case that happened way back on July 1, 1992, when he along with the staff and ambulance of Shaheed Hospital were present at the site of the agitation providing medical assistance to trade union activists of the Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha who were injured in police action. The agitating mine workers were demanding equal pay for all, for same kind of work before Bhilai Industrial Area. The agitators went on to the nearby railway track and tried to block the movement of the trains. The police resorted to firing which resulted in the deaths of some of the workers. Police lodged criminal cases against 54 persons in 1992. Among them, 49 persons were set free from the charges at different point of time. Dr. Saibal Jana was among the 5 persons who were left out after their anticipatory bail applications were rejected at the Jabalpur High Court in 1992-93.

After his arrest Dr. Jana has been charged under sections 147,148,149,333 &152 of IPC. He was immediately taken to the Durg District Government hospital for check-up where he got admitted under judicial custody. On March 18, 2016 morning he was referred to Apollo Hospital, Durg due to health complications.

HRDA – India believes that the arrest of Dr. Saibla Jana proves that the action is clearly motivated by the vested political and ideological interests to target anyone who stands up for the democratic rights of workers, farmers, tribals and ordinary Indian citizens. The arrest of a person of the public stature like Dr. Saibal Jana after a gap of 24 years in a case of an old warrant is a great travesty of Indian justice system.


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People’s War in India Clippings 20/3/2016



In a major anti-Naxal initiative, East Singhbhum district police has posted four police officers in as many CRPF camps in bordering districts of Bengal. According to information, sub-inspector rank police officers from Jharkhand have been posted at Belpahar in Bandhwan district, Jamboni and Salboni in West Midnapore district respectively. In bordering Belpahar district, two Jharkhand cops posted are in Burijhore and Kokrajhore CRPF camps. Two other police officers from the State have been posted at Jambboni and Salboni CRPF camps. Senior Superintendent of Police, East Singhbhum Anoop T Mathew said that they have posted Jharkhand police officers in CRPF camps in Bengal’s border areas because whenever the Bengal police used to carry out operation against CPI-Maoist rebels along the Jharkhand border, the latter would migrate into the Jharkhand, thus causing the Bengal police and the paramilitary forces to stand on the other side of the border.

“The move is a part of our strategy to ensure safety at our borders. With this initiative, the Jharkhand cops are posted at the CRPF camps at Bengal, when the Bengal police have to lead CRPF personnel for conducting operation, they do not have to stop on the Jharkhand border in absence of any permission. In other words, now the border of Bengal and Jharkhand has been mixed by getting Jharkhand cops posted at Bengal,” said the senior SP. Mathew said the decision was taken after a high level meeting between the police officers of the two States on how to meet the Naxalism challenges effectively prior to the 2016 Assembly elections in Bengal.

“The decision was taken in view of the Assembly elections in Bengal in May, but going by the response and its effectiveness we will continue the deputation of the Jharkhand police over there in Bengal even after the assembly elections are over. Because after the posting of the Jharkhand police, the Bengal police as well as the paramilitary forces from across the border are in a much better position in carrying out the anti-insurgency operation,” the senior police officers said.

According to Intelligence sources, the Naxals active in Belpahar, Salboni, Jamboni not only would take shelter in Ghatshila sub-division having crossed the border, but they would also provide logistic support to the CPI Maoist squads in Dalma, Dhalbhugarh and Dampara in getting influence the Government projects and also collecting levy from the local contractors in Ghatshila sub-division. The security forces camping at the Jharkhand-West Bengal border areas in the Ghatsila sub-division of the district are on the alert mode to take on any eventuality emanating from the possibility of fresh violence. Along the border area that encompasses several villages under the influence of Naxalites the security forces are interacting with the local villagers with adequate precaution. Besides, the movement of the security personnel, which include paramilitary jawans and cops of the Jharkhand police, is largely confined to on-foot movement. Chakulia, Shyamsunderpur and Dhalbhumgarh police station areas are under the strict vigilance of the forces particularly, Chakulia for its vulnerability to the Maoist-led violence. “The security personnel deployed in the border areas have been asked to follow the established security norms strictly while on patrolling. Besides, they have been asked to ensure smooth coordination on every front,” said an official.

Two Suspected Naxals Gunned Down on Maharashtra-Chhattisgarh Border

Two Naxals were “gunned down” by police in an encounter on the Maharashtra- Chhattisgarh border near here this evening. Personnel from Anti-Naxal Squad of the district police were on a combing operation in Kasansur area when a group of armed Maoists hiding in the forest suddenly opened fire at them around 5.30 pm. The policemen immediately returned fire, killing two of them, an official release here said. The other rebels, however fled, taking cover in the thick forest, it said, adding, two 303 rifles and naxal material were recovered from the encounter site located on the Maharashtra-Chhattisgarh border. Police, however, did not give the names of the slain ultras. Anti-naxal operations have been intensified in the area, it said.

Gadchiroli: 2 women Maoist cadres killed in encounter

Along with two .303 guns, several shoulder bags carried by the rebels have been recovered from the spot. Two women Maoist cadres were killed in an encounter with the police in Maharashtra’s Etapalli tehsil of Gadchiroli district on Sunday evening. ”The encounter took place around 5 pm between our C-60 commandos and a joint formation of platoon 15 and the Kasansur dalam…near Chhattisgarh border,” said Inspector General of Police (Nagpur Range) Ravindra Kadam. Along with two .303 guns, several shoulder bags carried by the rebels have been recovered from the spot. This is the first major success for the police in 2016.

Police Plan Outpost at Medigadda

KARIMNAGAR: In view of a new barrage proposed at Medigadda in Mahadevpur mandal near Maharashtra border, a potentially sensitive location, the police department is contemplating to set up an outpost and a police station near Medigadda. In this regard, Director General of Police (DGP) Anurag Sharma inspected the proposed site on Saturday. Later speaking to media persons, he said there was a need to strengthen security at the project site as it was lying close to the borders of Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra states. Once the project works start, security has to be strengthened as hundreds of staff workers would be engaged in their respective duties, he opined. It is learnt that, earlier, he discussed with Warangal range DIG B Malla Reddy and Karimnagar SP D Joel Davis over Maoist movement and situation in the interior villages that are adjacent to the Chhattisgarh border.

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Manual Perez Martinez: the end of a political trial

Poster. Arenas

After fifteen years of proceedings the Strasbourg Tribunal (ECHR) has confirmed the sentences passed by French and Spanish courts against Manual Perez Martinez, general secretary of the PCE(r).

Perez Martinez was arrested in Paris in 2000, he was tried and convicted by the French courts, was later extradited to Spain, again tried and convicted by Spanish courts and the process has come to an end in Strasbourg. The state has achieved its goal of a life sentence for Martinez, considering his age and poor health.


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People’s War in India Clippings 19/3/2016


PUCL condemns Odisha activist’s arrest

BHUBANESWAR: People’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) today condemned the arrest of Debaranjan Sarangi, an active member of Ganatantrik Adhikar Surakhya Sangathan (GASS), who was arrested by the plain‐clothed policemen in the morning hours on 18th March from the village Kucheipadar in Kashipur Block of Rayagada district. According to a press statement, PUCL learnt from the villagers of Kucheipadar that at the time of arrest the policemen had given them the impression that they were from Malkangiri police station and Sarangi would be taken to Malkangiri. However, till 4 O’clock in the afternoon, neither the local villagers nor the Legal counsel of Sarangi nor members of his family had any idea of his whereabouts.

Subsequently, PUCL got to know from his lawyer Kanhei that Sarangi had been arrested on some cases dating back to the year 2005 relating to the movement against the setting up of an aluminium plant and bauxite mining in the area, and was produced in the Kashipur court and been remanded to judicial custody at Rayagada. “It needs to be noted that Kucheipadar village had played a crucial role in the anti‐Bauxite mining movement and Sarangi was closely associated with the movement for many years supporting the community in their struggle against displacement. The movement had to suffer tremendous state repression. In the year 2000, three Adivasis were killed in police firing.

During 2005‐2006, hundreds of people were picked up by police and put in jail on false cases of which people had no knowledge. Even today, people are being arrested for cases registered ten years ago. Added to this is the unstated policy of the government of labeling every struggle of the Adivasis as ‘Maoists’ and then in the name of containing ‘Maoists menace’ indiscriminately arrest and kill innocent Adivasis. So it was in January 2011 the security forces had brutally killed 9 people in Basangamali in Kashipur Block, which included five young Adivasi girls. Not surprisingly, the same policy is being pursued to suppress the anti‐mining struggle of Adivasis in Niyamgiri hills.

Only a few days ago, Mando Kadraka, a tribal, was killed by the security forces and he was branded as a Maoist,” according to PUCL. “In December 2015, the DVF (a special wing of the Odisha Police formed to tackle the Maoists) had killed three Adivasis in the Karlapat sanctuary area (in the adjacent district of Kalahandi) and declared them as Maoists. What is common to all these areas is the rich Bauxite deposits and the sinister design of the state to handover these resources to the corporate by silencing the voice of opposition. The arrest of Debaranjan is just an example of it,” PUCL said. In the statement, Pramodini Pradhan, Convenor, PUCL‐Odisha, demanded that the government of Odisha withdraw all the old cases falsely foisted on local people and activists and unconditionally release those who have been arrested.

..Meanwhile, the Maoists killed one of their former colleagues, identified as Manau Ram (38), at Mulle village under Amabeda Police Station limits in Kanker District on March 17, reports The New Indian Express. The deceased had surrendered in 2014…

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Long Live the Victory of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat!-1971




Peking Review, March 19, 1971 [ Extract of first three sections-Signalfire] l.


The Principles of the Paris Commune Are Eternal

March 18 this year marks the centenary of the Paris Commune. Full of profound feelings of proletarian internationalism, the Chinese Communists and the Chinese people under the teaching of their great leader Chairman Mao warmly celebrate this great “festival of tho proletariat” together with the proletariat and the revolutionary people throughout the world. One hundred years ago the proletariat and the broad masses of the people of Paris in France staged a heroic armed uprising and founded the Paris Commune. This was the first proletarian regime in the history of mankind, the first great attempt of the proletariat to overthrow the bourgeoisie and establish the dictatorship of the proletariat.

The Paris Commune abolished the army and police of the reactionary bourgeois government and replaced them with the armed people; the gun was in the hands of the working class. The Paris Commune broke the bourgeois bureaucratic apparatus enslaving the people, founded the working class’s own government, adopted a series of policies to safeguard the interests of the working people and organized the masses to take an active part in running the state. In the fight to found and defend the proletarian regime, the heroes of the Paris Commune displayed extraordinary revolutionary initiative, soaring revolutionary enthusiasm and self-sacrificing heroism, winning the admiration of the revolutionary people generation after generation. Although the Paris Commune failed as a result of the military onslaught and bloody suppression carried out by butcher Thiers in league with Bismarck, its historical contributions are indelible.

As Marx said: The glorious movement of March 18 was “tho dawn of the great social revolution which will liberate mankind from the regime of classes forever”2 While the battle was still raging in a Paris darkened by the smoke of gunfire, Marx declared: “But even if tho Commune is crushed, the struggle will only be postponed. The principles of the Commune are eternal and cannot be destroyed; they will declare themselves again and again until the working class achieves its liberation.” What are the revolutionary principles that Marx and Engels, the great teachers of the proletariat, summed up on the basis of the practice of the Paris Commune? In a word, “the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready-made state machinery, and wield it for its own purposes.”4 The proletariat must use revolutionary violence to “break” and “smash”5 the old state machinery and carry out the dictatorship of the proletariat.6

In expounding this principle, Marx stressed: The first premise of the dictatorship of the proletariat “is an army of the proletariat. The working class must win the right to its emancipation on the battlefield.”7 Only by relying on revolutionary armed force can the proletariat overthrow the rule of reactionary classes and go on to fulfill its whole historical mission. Marx also said: The state of the dictatorship of the proletariat “will be a working, not a parliamentary, body, executive and legislative at the same time.” 8 As Lenin said: “One of the most remarkable and most important ideas of Marxism on the subject of the state” is “the idea of the ‘dictatorship of the proletariat” (as Marx and Engels began to call it after the Paris Commune).” 9

To persist in revolutionary violence to smash the bourgeois state machine and establish the dictatorship of the proletariat, or to maintain the bourgeois state machine and oppose the dictatorship of the proletariat this has been the focus of repeated struggles between Marxism on the one hand and revisionism, reformism, anarchism and all kinds of bourgeois and petty-bourgeois ideology on the other, the focus of repeated struggles between the two lines in the international communist movement for the past hundred years.

It is precisely on this fundamental question of the dictatorship of the proletariat that all revisionism, from the revisionism of the Second International to modern revisionism with the Soviet revisionist renegade clique as its center, has completely betrayed Marxism. A century’s history has proved to the full that the Marxist theory of the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat is invincible. Forty-six years after the Paris Commune uprising, the proletariat of Russia, led by the great Lenin, won victory in the October Socialist Revolution through armed uprising, opening up a new world era of proletarian revolution and proletarian dictatorship. Lenin said: On the path of breaking the old state machine, the Paris Commune “took tho first world-historical step. . . . Tho Soviet Government took the second.” 10

Seventy-eight years after the Paris Commune uprising, the Chinese people, led by the great leader Chairman Mao, won victory in the revolution. Chairman Mao blazed a trail in establishing rural base areas, encircling the cities from the countryside and finally taking the cities. He led the Chinese people through protracted revolutionary wars in overthrowing the reactionary rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, in breaking the old state machine and bringing about in China the people’s democratic dictatorship, that is, the dictatorship of the proletariat. Since then Chairman Mao has been leading the Chinese people in continuing the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat and advancing triumphantly along the socialist road. Fighting bravely, advancing wave upon wave and supporting and encouraging each other in the past century, the proletariat, the oppressed people and oppressed nations of the world have been promoting the socialist revolution and the national democratic revolution and have won most brilliant victories. As Comrade Mao Tsetung points out: “This is the historic epoch in which world capitalism and imperialism are going down to their doom and world socialism and people’s democracy are marching to victory.” 11

The cause of the Paris Commune is spreading far and wide at a higher stage in the new historical conditions. The world has undergone an earth-shaking change. In commemorating the tenth anniversary of the Paris Commune, Marx and Engels, with jubilant revolutionary feeling, told the European working class: “Thus the Commune which the powers of the old world believed to be exterminated, lives stronger than ever, and thus we may join you in the cry: Vive la Commune!”12 Today, the flames of the revolutionary torch raised by the Paris Commune- are ablaze throughout the world, and the days of imperialism, social-imperialism and all reaction are numbered.

In celebrating the centenary of the Paris Commune at such a time, the Marxist-Leninists, the proletariat and the revolutionary people the world over have all the more reason to shout with unbounded confidence: Long live the Commune! Long live the victory of the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat! In commemorating the Paris Commune, we should study the Marxist-Leninist theory of the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, learn from historical experience, criticize modern revisionism with the Soviet revisionist renegade clique as its center, adhere to the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary line, and unite with the people of the world to win still greater victories.

II. It is of the Utmost importance for the Revolutionary People to Take Hold of the Gun

The historical experience of the Paris Commune has fully demonstrated that taking hold of revolutionary arms is of the utmost importance to the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat. Explaining the experience of the Paris Commune, Lenin referred to Engels’ important thesis that the workers emerged with arms from every revolution in France and that, therefore, the disarming of the workers was the first commandment for the bourgeois, who were at the helm of the state. On this conclusion of Engels’, Lenin commented: “The essence of the matter also, by the way, on the question of the state (has the oppressed class arms?) is here remarkably well grasped.” l3

The Paris Commune was born in the fierce struggle between armed revolution and armed counter-revolution. The 72 days of the Paris Commune were 72 days of armed uprising, armed struggle and armed defense. The very fact that the proletariat of Paris had taken hold of the gun struck the greatest terror into the hearts of the bourgeois reactionaries. And a fatal error of the Paris Commune lay precisely in the fact that it showed excessive magnanimity towards counter-revolution and did not march on Versailles immediately, thus giving Thiers a breathing space to muster his reactionary forces for an onslaught on revolutionary Paris.

As Engels said: “Would the Paris Commune have lasted a single day if it had not made use of this authority of the armed people against the bourgeois? Should we not, on the contrary, reproach it for not having used it freely enough?” 14

Comrade Mao Tsetung has concisely summed up the tremendous importance of armed struggle and the people’s army and advanced the celebrated thesis “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.”15 He points out: “According to the Marxist theory of the state the army is the chief component of state power. Whoever wants to seize and retain state power must have a strong army.” 16 Violent revolution is the universal principle of proletarian revolution. A Marxist-Leninist party must adhere to this universal principle and apply it to the concrete practice of its own country. Historical experience shows that the seizure of political power by the proletariat and the oppressed people of a country and the seizure of victory in their revolution are accomplished invariably by the power of the gun; they are accomplished under the leadership of a proletarian party, by acting in accordance with that country’s specific conditions, by gradually building up the people’s armed forces and fighting a people’s war on the basis of arousing the broad masses to action, and by waging repeated struggles against the imperialists and reactionaries. This is true of the Russian revolution, the Chinese revolution, and .the revolutions of Albania, Vietnam, Korea and other countries, and there is no exception.

On the other hand, a proletarian party suffers in the revolution if it fails to go in for or gives up revolutionary armed. force, and there have been serious lessons: Some parties failed to take hold of the gun and were helpless in the face of sudden attacks by imperialism and its lackeys and of counter- revolutionary suppression, and as a result millions of revolutionary people were massacred. In some cases where the revolutionary people had already taken up arms and their armed forces had grown considerably, certain parties handed over the people’s armed forces and forfeited the fruits of the revolution because they sought official posts in bourgeois governments or were duped by the reactionaries. The proletariat must use the gun to seize political power and must use the gun to defend it.

The people’s army under the leadership of a Marxist-Leninist party is the bulwark of the dictatorship of the proletariat and among the various factors for preventing the restoration of capitalism it is the main one. Having a people’s army armed with the Marxist-Leninist ideology, the proletariat can deal with any complicated situation in the domestic or international class struggle and safeguard the proletarian state. The contemporary liberation movement of the oppressed nations is an important component part and a great ally of the proletarian world revolution. The national democratic revolution and the socialist revolution are related to each other and at the same time distrnct from each other; they represent two different stages and are different in character. However, to win complete victory in the national democratic revolution, it is likewise necessary to get prepared for a trial of armed strength with the imperialists and reactionaries. For the oppressed nations, it is likewise most important to take hold of the gun.

Since World War II, imperialism, colonialism and neo-colonialism headed by the United States have incessantly launched wars of aggression and resorted ever more frequently to such means as military intervention, armed subversion and invasion by mercenary troops to suppress the countries and people that are fighting for or have already gained independence. Incomplete statistics show that U.S. imperialism has engineered and launched armed intervention and armed aggression .on more than 50 occasions in the past 25 years. As for U.S.-engineered armed subversion, examples are too numerous to be counted. Therefore, in order to win liberation and safeguard their national independence and state sovereignty and effectively combat aggression and subversion by imperialism and its lackeys, a1l the oppressed nations must have their own anti-imperialist armed forces and be prepared at all times to counter wars of aggression with revolutionary wars. The war against U.S. aggression and for national salvation waged by the people of the three countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia has set a brilliant example to the oppressed nations and people all over the world.

The struggles against aggression and subversion waged by the people of many other countries and regions in Asia, Africa and Latin America have likewise provided valuable experience. In his solemn statement “People of the World, Unite and Defeat the U.S. Aggressors and All Their Running Dogs!”, Chairman Mao points out: “A weak nation can defeat a strong, a small nation can defeat a big. The people of a small country can certainly defeat aggression by a big country, if only they dare to rise in struggle, dare to take up arms and grasp in their own hands the destiny of their country. this is a law of history.”l7

As Comrade Lin Piao says, “people’s war is the most effective weapon against U.S. imperialism and its lackeys.”18 The proletariat and the oppressed people and nations the world over will all change from being unarmed and unskilled in warfare to taking up arms and being skilled in warfare. U.S. imperialism and all its lackeys will eventually be burned to ashes in the fiery flames of the people’s war they themselves have kindled.

III. Revolution ls the Cause of the Masses in Their Millions

The historical experience of the Paris Commune tells us that to be victorious in the proletarian revolu- tion and the dictatorship of the proletariat it is imperative to rely on the revolutionary enthusiasm of the masses in their millions and give full play to their great power as the makers of history. Lenin said: “The autocracy cannot be abolished without the revolutionary action of class-conscious millions, without a great surge of mass heroism, readiness and. ability on their part to ‘storm heaven’, as Marx put it when speaking of the Paris workers at the time of the Commune.”l9 Marx, the great teacher of the proletariat, highly valued the revolutionary initiative of the masses of the people and set us a brilliant example of the correct attitude to adopt towards the revolutionary mass movement.

In the autumn of 1870, prior to the founding of the Paris Commune, Marx pointed out that the conditions were not ripe for an uprising by the French workers. But when the proletariat of Paris did rise in revolt with heaven-storming revolutionary heroism in March 1871, Marx, regarding himself as a participant, promptly and firmly supported and helped this proletarian revolution. Although he perceived the mistakes of the Commune and foresaw its defeat, Marx considered the revolution the most glorious exploit of the French working class . For he regarded this movement “as a historic experience of enormous importance, as a certain advance of the world proletarian revolution, as a practical step that was more important than hundreds of programs and arguments.”20 In a letter to L. Kugelmann at that time, Matx expressed his fervent praise: “What elasticity, what historical initiative, what a capacity for sacrifice in these Parisians!” “History has no like example of like greatness!’ 2l Lenin saw in this letter a gulf between the proletarian revolutionaries and the opportunists and hoped that it would be “hung in the home of every literate Russian worker.” 22

Contrary to the Marxists, all the opportunists and old and new revisionists oppose the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat and they inevitably have a mortal fear of and bitter hatred for the masses, and they deride, curse and sabotage the revolutionary mass movement. When the Russian armed uprising of December 1905 failed, Plekhanov stood aloof and accused the masses, saying: “They should not have taken to arms.” . Lenin indignantly criticized Plekhanov’s aristocratic attitude towards the revolutionary mass movement and denounced him as an infamous Russian renegade from Marxism. Lenin pointed out that without the “general rehearsal” of 1905, victory in the October Revolution in 1917 would have been impossible.

In 1959, when our great teacher Chairman Mao denounced the Peng Teh-huai Right-opportunist anti- Party clique for slandering and opposing the revolutionary mass movement, he sharply told these anti- Marxist renegades: “Please look and see how Marx and Lenin commented on the Paris Commune, and Lenin on the Russian revolution!” “Do you see how Lenin criticized the renegade Plekhanov and those ‘bourgeois gentlemen and their hangers-on,’ ‘the curs and swine of the moribund bourgeoisie and of the petty-bourgeois democrats who trail behind them? ff not, will you please have a look?” 23 Chairman Mao used this historical experience as a profound lesson to educate the whole Party and urged our Party members and cadres to follow the example of Marx and Lenin and take a correct attitude towards the revolutionary mass movement.

“Revolution is the main trend in the world today”. 24 All round the globe, the people are thundering: Down with the U.S. aggressors and all their running dogs! The strategic rear areas of imperialism have become front lines in the anti-imperialist struggle. The victorious development of the war of the three peoples of Indochina against U.S. aggression and for national salvation has pushed the worldwide anti-U.S. struggle to a new high. The struggle against the doctrine of the hegemony of the two superpowers is gaining momentum.

The national liberation movement in Asia and Africa is shooting forward as violently as a raging fire. The struggle of the people of Korea, Japan and other Asian countries against the revival of Japanese militarism by the’ U.S. and Japanese reactionaries is daily surging ahead. The Palestinian and other Arab people are continuing their advance in the fight against the U.S.-Israeli aggressors. Revolutionary mass movments on an unprecedented scale have broken out in North America, Europe and Oceania. The workers, students, black people and other minority peoples in the United States are daily awakening and rising in a revolutionary storm against the reactionary rule of the Nixon government and its policy of aggression.

In Latin America, the “backyard” of U.S. imperialism, the long-suppressed anti-U.S. fury in the hearts of the people has now burst forth, and a new situation has emerged characterized by joint struggle for the defense of their national interests and state sovereignty. The revolutionary struggle of the people in certain East European countries against social-imperialism is in the ascendant. The spring thunder of revolution is sounding even in hitherto relatively quiescent areas. Reacting on and encouraging each other, these struggles have merged into the powerful torrent of the world ‘people’s revolutionary movement. In the face of the present great revolutionary movement, every revolutionary party and every revolutionary will have to make a choice. To march at the head of the masses and lead them? To trail behind them, gesticulating and criticizing? Or to stand in their way and oppose them? Genuine Marxist-Leninist parties and all revolutionaries must warmly support the revolutionary actions of the masses, firmly march at the head of the mass movement and lead the masses forward.

The political parties of the proletariat and all revolutionaries “ought to face the world and brave the storm, the great world of mass struggle and the mighty storm of mass struggle”25; They must share weal and woe with the masses, modestly learn from them, be their willing pupils, be good at discovering their revolutionary initiative and draw wisdom and strength from them. Only by plunging into the mighty storm of the mass movement can a political party of the proletariat temper itself and grow in maturity. And only through the practice of the masses in class struggle can a correct program or line be formulated, developed, tested and carried out. The mainstream of the revolutionary mass movement is always good and always conforms to the development of society. In the mass movement various trends of thought exert their influence, various factions emerge and various kinds of people take part, This is only natural. Nothing on earth is absolutely pure: Through their practice in struggle and repeated comparison, the broad masses of the people will eventually distinguish between what is correct and what is erroneous; they will eventuality cast aside revisionism and all that is erroneous and accept and grasp the revolutionary truth of Marxism-Leninism.

A proletarian party must go deep among the masses and work patiently, painstakingly and for a long time, so as constantly to raise their political consciousness and lead the mass movement forward along the correct road. The question of first importance. for the revolution is to distinguish between enemies and friends, to unite with our real friends and attack our real enemies. The development of the revolutionary mass movement calls for the constant strengthening of unity within the revolutionary forces and the smashing of the plots to split and sabotage hatched by the imperialists, revisionists and reactionaries. The people, who constitute over 90 per cent of the population-the workers, peasants, students and all those who refuse to be oppressed by imperialism invariably want to make revolution. In order to defeat U’S. imperialism and all its running dogs, it is imperative to form a broad united front, unite with all forces that can be united, the enemy excepted, and carry out arduous struggle.

Comrade Mao Tsetung points out: “Direct reliance on the revolutionary masses is a basic principle of the Communist Party.” We must rely on the masses and launch mass movements when we fight for political power. We must likewise rely on the masses, launch mass movements and adhere to the mass line . in all our work when we engage in the socialist revolution and socialist construction after the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat. “As long as we rely on the people, believe firmly in the inexhaustible creative power of the masses and hence trust and identify ourselves with them, no enemy can crush us while we can crush every enemy and overcome every difficulty.”27

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Declaration of the Founding of the Revolutionary United People’s Movement


A more complete report of the founding statement of the HBDH-Signalfire

Ten revolutionary organisations from Turkey/Kurdistan joined their forces to fight the fascism of the AKP and of President Erdoğan at its head. Basing on the experiences of the Internationalist Freedom Battalion, in which these groups have been united for one year already to defend Rojava, knowing that the guerillas of TKP/ML-TiKKO, PKK and MKP have been sharing their training camps for several years and knowing that for several months now these groups have been participating unofficially in the defense of the cities of Cizre, Silopi and Nusaybin, this official union has been long awaited. As a result of the failure of the parliamentary strategy of the HDP coalition, confronted by the Turkish Deep State, whose nature does not allow for the smallest of hopes for democracy, these organisations that, for the most part, have not kept close relationships to one another, made the decision to unite their forces in order to intensify their struggle against the fascist dictatorship of the AKP.

The creation of the Revolutionary United People’s Movement (Halkların Birleşik Devrim Hareketi) was declared by 10 revolutionary organisations that, following a series of discussions that have been taking place since December, made the decision to unite their forces and to lead a common front.

In their declaration, the organisations that are uniting their forces in the Revolutionary United People’s Movement, are doing it with the goal of strengthening the revolution by combatting this force deemed to be “the fascist collaborationist AKP and the oppressive system of the Turkish Republic” on all fronts, through armed struggle and by all other means.




Representatives of the organisations taking part in the creation of the Revolutionary United Movement, having gathered in the guerilla zones, explained the purpose of this move and its goals. Prior to reading the declaration, Duran Kalkan, member of the Executive Committee of the PKK, said these words: “We find ourselves here to be a part of a declaration that will doom fascism here and today, and which will be a new glimmer of hope for our peoples.” Afterward, he listed in the order given below the names of the revolutionary organisations of Turkey and Kurdistan that having being engaging in discussion since December and that have made the decision to unite their forces and to carry out actions together:

TKP/ML (Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist)

PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party)

THKP-C/MLSPB (Front-Liberation Party of the People of Turkey / Marxist-Leninist Armed Propaganda Unit)

MKP (Maoist Communist Party)

TKEP-L (Communist Labour Party of Turkey-Leninist)

TİKB (Revolutionary Communist League of Turkey)

DKP (Revolutionary Communard Party)

Devrimci Karargâh (Revolutionary Headquarter)

MLKP (Marxist-Leninist Communist Party (Turkey/North Kurdistan))

Moreover, the Proleter Devrimciler Koordinasyonu (Coordination of Revolutionary Proletarians) has announced to join the Revolutionary United Movement. Also, an organisation by the name of Diriliş Hareket (Renaissance Movement), which took part at the discussions, has announced that it is considering to join the Movement.




Regarding the choice of March 12th as the date for the founding of the Revolutionary United of the Peoples’ Movement, Kalkan says the following: “By declaring our founding on the date of the 45th anniversary of the fascist Coup d’État of March 12, 1971, on the date of the 21st anniversary of the Gazi Massacre of March 12, 1995 and on the date of the 12th anniversary of the Qamışlo Massacre of March 12, 2004, we send a message to all the peoples of Turkey and Kurdistan that we made the decision to fight against fascism, imperialism and all sorts of obscurantisms, and for the Revolution, freedom, socialism, democracy and the fraternity of the peoples. By finding ourselves in such a union on the 45th anniversary of the fascist Coup d’État of March 12, 1971, we openly maintain our desire to lead victoriously our struggle for the Revolution, democracy and socialism. The Regime of the fascist Coup d’État massacred the Mahir Çayan’s, the Deniz Gezmiş’s and the İBRAHİM KAYPAKKAYA’s. Yet their passion, their resistance, their knowledge, their goals and aspirations are still here and still fresh. We are present; just like 45 years ago, we make our love of freedom, democracy and socialism a reality. We find ourselves undertaking this union in order to lead to victory the revolution against AKP’s fascism, which, by restoring the fascist Coups d’État of March 12 and September 12, seeks to put in place a new fascist dictatorship.”




“We will lead the struggle together, we will overcome together”


Following this, the communiqué was read in Turkish and Kurdish. The read communiqué, having brought up an analysis of the crisis currently-experienced in the Middle East and of the massacres, underlined that the entangled forces are of an imperialist nature and that the reactionary structures of the nation-state are menacing to drag away all of humanity into a world war. The AKP is showcased: “In its union with the imperialists and on a basis of contradictory interests, the AKP government seeks out the dirties alliances at international and regional levels in this bloody war led against the peoples of the region. In the same retrospective, inside the country, the AKP has launched a bloody, total assault against the peoples. It is trying to crush all opposition by means of state terrorism, street assassinations, massacres and mass arrests. At the same time, it attempts to commit a genocide against the Kurdish people by reducing the cities, take with tank fire and bullets, to rubble. It is working to crush all resistance and to install a one-party dictatorship supported by the traditional, modern, reactionary and fascist forces of the oppressive system of the Turkish Republic. This bloody and fascist alliance unites them on grounds of hatred of Kurds.”

The declaration, informing of the heavy damages and exploitation created by the regional forces, which ripened the revolutionary situation and opened a way for the Revolutionary United Peoples’ Movement, reads: “In fact, nowadays defending the revolutionary process in Rojava, the resistance for Kurdish self-determination and the Revolutionary United struggle of our peoples, means defending all of the oppressed, the workers, the intellectuals, the democrats, the life and the future of the entire people. In conclusion, to take into account all of these values is synonymous with defending the future of the peoples of the World. In this system, not a fraction of the society is safe in Turkey. The Alevis, the Kurds, the laic democrats, the workers, the poor and all of the opposition forces are under the fire of the assaults. If the struggle for Kurdish self-determination is broken, the AKP will start to attack all other opposition forces in Turkey. Consequently, the future of all progressive, revolutionary and working class forces in Turkey is directly tied to the future of the Kurdish resistance.”

The Revolutionary United Peoples’ Movement’s basic principles of struggle were declared as following :

-Our movement’s goal is to fight against imperialism, capitalism, chauvinism, fascism and racism for an emancipated and democratic future for our peoples. The destruction of the fascist AKP and of its public support by the revolutionary forces of the people is considered to be unavoidable.

-The AKP government is in the process of destroying the society and the natural environment. It is a danger for women and youth. It intensifies the exploitation of the working class and of all workers and imposes slave-like conditions. It subdues and massacres all of the fringes of the population.

-The Revolutionary United Peoples’ Movement adopts the principle of forming, organizing and unifying all forces – the victims of the AKP government’s and the Turkish Republic’s bourgeois state’s assaults – with the goal of mobilizing them for the struggle.

-The Revolutionary United Peoples’ Movement struggles for an ecological society and supports women’s liberation and the struggle for rights and liberties for the working class and the workers. It struggles to win an emancipated future for our peoples by founding people’s power in Turkey and democratic autonomy in Kurdistan.

-The Revolutionary United Peoples’ Movement calls all the oppressed masses, victims of fascism and conservatism, starting with women, youth, proletarians and workers to organise, to united and to fight for freedom, democracy and the fraternity of the peoples.



Concluding the declaration on the notion that in Turkey’s current situation, if measures are not taken, an even more bloody dictatorship will be put in place, the declaration reads: “Only the resistance of the united peoples and the revolution can protect us from what will happen. Either an even more bloody dictatorship will be put in place, or by organising and arming themselves, our people will reduce to dust the AKP fascists and the jihadists.”

After the first declaration, the representative of MLKP, Ferzad Can, gave a speech to congratulate the people with the creation of the Revolutionary United People’s Movement: “To finish, we would like to add the following; presently, our people are no longer without an alternative against imperialism, capitalism, fascism and all sorts of conservatism. The Revolutionary United Peoples’ Movement is a revolutionary avant-garde built on the slogans of democracy, liberty, justice, equality and revolution. We invite our peoples, our workers, the oppressed, all cultures starting with the Alevis, the women, the youth to join the ranks of the Revolutionary United Movement and to struggle. We congratulate our peoples for the Revolutionary United Movement and hope that it will bring victories.”

The Declaration was concluded with the slogans ‘Down with fascism’, ‘Long live the revolution’, ‘Long live the fraternity of the peoples’.

Via New Turkey



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