— by Anwar Kabir, Secretary, Central Committee, Proletarian Party of Purbo Bangla (PBSP/Bangladesh)
The greatest achievement of the human race in the modern era is the invention of the doctrine of scientific communism, which in last century, has developed into Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. In last century, this doctrine has changed the face of the earth again and again. The great Russian revolution, the Chinese revolution and the Proletarian Cultural revolution (GPCR) — these three milestones have, on the one hand raised this doctrine into MLM, similarly on the other, they have shown the instance of completely new society throughout a large portion of the world, the society which is hint-carrier of an ever shining future of the human race. But unfortunately, it has not been possible to continue this achievement of real life.
When the world has entered in the new century, the 21st century, then the whole world-system is under imperialism. By winning over communism for the time being, world imperialism has become more desperate for exploitation, plunder & oppression of the world. On the one hand, under the leadership of imperialist chieftain US, they have initiated a new wave of unjust war against the world people. On the other side, bargaining and split among themselves have again increased for sharing out of the world. Especially the imperialist gang-leader the US has started to advance towards facism by trampling down their own bourgeoisie democratic system. Question has arose, whether this century will be beaten in rat-trap of facism and unjust war by bringing about repitition of last century. And will see helplessly in one hand, hoodwinking of so-called “modern” doctrine named as democracy, and on the other hand, —– of the scattered & vitiated struggle of mediaeval religious ideology.
Or, the world people, especially the world proletariat class as the most advanced revolutionary class in the history, will come forward again for establishing a new shining world and finally will be successful to establish that ? In the previous century world imperialism has gone to death door again and again. But total collapse of this crumbling imperialism has not occurred. Rather, by defeating the world proletarian revolution temporarily, since 80’s of last century, it is showing the audacity of bullying that communism is dead. The revolutionary force is still weak, though the potential of a genuine revolution, able to uproot the imperialist system is huge in the context of the struggle, uprising and waking up of the masses, oppressed and exploited by imperialism wordwide, and in the context of the own crises of imperialism.
In this situation, what will be the role of MLM in 21st century, the doctrine which had enabled to prove itself as the only one omnipotent & opposite revolutionary doctrine to imperialism in last century ? How MLM will face this situation? This question is bound to be raised in front of MLM-ists worldwide, and it is bound to create debate around it. Because, after the grave setback of world communist movement during the 70’s of last century, a long period of nearly three decades has passed away. And during this time, so many changes have occurred in the world situation. The responsibility of MLM-ists is to carry out this debate properly, and advance the revolutionary class struggle; and through these, develop the ideology of MLM further and establish it as fully enable to face the challenge of 21st century. An overall debate of this type always touches the base of the doctrine of our class MLM.
To get rid of the ongoing world system and for uprooting that, how we will uphold the ideology of communism in 21st century, and how we will develop these are bound to come in this discussion, research and debate. This question is evidently related to the question of effectiveness of the doctrine of communism. The global ‘modern’ ideology, which is upheld in opposition to the ideology of communism, is the doctrine of “Democracy”. It is a fact that illusion about democracy is sky-high. It happened to develop in last century in the adverse situation after the setback of communist movement.
But it is also a fact that, Marxism had unveiled this …. scientifically in the era of its emergence & through out the last century it was done successfully. In addition, when the revolution fails, the monsters raise their heads; and with this, increase ……. Still we have not passed that period. So, there is necessity to understand again the doctrine of communism against the doctrine of ‘democracy’. And this is one of the principal tasks among all other roles of MLM in 21st century. Marxism has taught us since its inception that democracy is not universal, rather that is only applicable among a specific class in all class divided society. There can not be democracy for any class without the dictatorship over the opposite class.
Such as, bourgeoisie democracy is not possible without the dictatorship over the proletariat class, and democracy of proletariat class is not possible without carrying out dictatorship over bourgeoisie class. When there will be no need of dictatorship, the world will enter into a classless society, i.e., communism, and then talking about democracy will also be meaningless. So, the central question of power is the question of dictatorship; the dictatorship of which class over which opposite class. How will we make advancement in this fundamental basis of communist ideology that question is bound to knock at the doorstep of the world of doctrinal development.
When the bright possibility of establishing the state of proletariat class in the world has arose again, then there is no doubt that this question will become an important subject to be discussed among proletariat class and MLM-ists. We also will centralize our discussion in this article on this very subject. Actually the idea of democracy is not of modern world, rather it has come from slave period. Although this idea has got higher meaning and form by coming to bourgeoisie era. Democracy was practiced in the administrative system in slave period in ancient Rome and Greece too. The important institution ‘parliament’ of todays bourgeoisie democracy has come from the practice of senate in slave society. That democracy was for slave owners. There was far reaching to participate in it for slaves, even they were not recognized fully as a part of human species. Basically bourgeoisie democracy is also the same thing. Bourgeoisie democracy is nothing but a means to carry out power of modern exploiting class. Undoubtedly, universal suffrage is an important constituent of bourgeoisie democracy in the present era. But in the beginning it was not present in democracy in many places. Even half of the population of the society, suffrage of woman also was recognized after a long period in different times in different countries in bourgeoisie democracy.
So, which should be established very firmly at the very beginning, is that, in present world, what is meant by democracy is bourgeoisie democracy. And the actual meaning of this becomes clear only when its character is realized and unveiled as bourgeoisie dictatorship. Bourgeoisie democracy can’t exist without carrying out dictatorship over the working class and mass-people. Ideology of communism upholds the politics of dictatorship of the proletariat class on contrary of this bourgeoisie dictatorship.
Specific characteristics of this dictatorship is : it is the dictatorship of majority over minority first in history. Previously this was opposite. And this dictatorship is only a bridge in the road to advancing the human race into a classless society, that means abolition of all types of class dictatorship, state system and state power. So, proletarian dictatorship can’t be without arming with the ideology of establishing classless society worldwide, i.e., the doctrine of communism. Likewise, doctrine of communism can’t be established without going through proletarian dictatorship. It is very urgent to uphold much more strongly our communist doctrine in 21st century. And it is necessary to unveil the bourgeoisie doctrine of democracy more & more.
But the question is that, when dictatorship and democracy these two are shown as controversial and separate subjects, then is it not the bourgeoisie class, which get the chance to show itself as a real democratic? Whereas, in reality, democracy is very much profound & broad for proletariat class and masses under proletarian dictatorship? Can’t we fight ‘‘bourgeoisie democracy’’ with ‘‘proletarian democracy’ ? And isn’t that more correct politically & tactically ? Firstly, certainly we can & must hold high that proletarian democracy is a very much broad democracy. We must show how bourgeoisie democracy protect the interest of 10% and basically execute their power. And socialism, on the contrary, represents 90%. But, we can’t ultimately establish our theory related to power, state and ‘democracy’ in the realm of doctrine, if we do not expose scientifically the bourgeoisie explanation of democracy that democracy is universal.
And we can’t prepare the people for the capture and execution of their power by rectifying their ….. and illusion. Limiting ourselves only in opposing their bogus democracy by our real democracy, or tactics of defeating the enemy with their weapons these fail to enter into the essence of the debate in this field. That essence is that, democracy is only one aspect of dictatorship. The dangerous political aspect of this is, proletariat class and the people will be less conscious about the execution of their own dictatorship over the bourgeoisie class, and as a result, that will fail. So, the main thing is not to raise the slogan of democracy against dictatorship, rather, how proletarian dictatorship can be executed more properly.
Other related aspect of this is, how democracy among the proletariat class and masses can be practiced more properly. These two are two aspects of a single system, and certainly both of these have their own specific problems. But in class-divided society the problem of dictatorship is the essence of power. For that very reason, we see that, fascism and bourgeoisie democracy is the same in essence, i.e, bourgeoisie dictatorship although there are some important differences between these two in the method of execution of power. And this is more important in socialism, because, young socialism has to survive and advance by struggling against the force of the whole imperialist world system; and as socialism is a transitional period, numerous bourgeoisie relations exist here in all the fields including economic-political-cultural fields, and from these new bourgeoisie emerge in every moment.
So, the question of dictatorship in socialism is many times more important than in capitalist society, and if it is not taken this way, setback is inevitable.
By entering into 21st century, it will bound to be, and in the mean time it has already become, important in world communist movement the subject of summation of the experiences of socialism, i.e., proletarian dictatorship in last century. These revolutions had been defeated after advancing to some extent. Certainly the world wide enemies of socialism were very strong; but for evaluating this defeat correctly, serious importance in the summation of errors and mistakes from our own side is needed.
Anyway, this summation should be done by standing on the fundamental doctrinal base, with the help of that, and through this process again, the development of doctrine will have to be occurred. Through combination with bourgeoisie doctrine, our ideology is not developed, rather, damage is done, which under appropriate condition can bring burden some setback. So, first of all, cautions is needed regarding this. 21st century will become a most important period in the history of human race. Imperialism is proceeding through varieties of crises from the beginning, although it lasted through out the past century. It is digging its own grave by its own activities, although it got temporary victory against communism. Its ‘war against terrorism’ has made people worldwide hostile to it from the very beginning of this century. Besides, globalization and travelling towards fascism — these programs and policies against the people of the world have unveiled its character day by day.
Imperialism may launch even a new inter-imperialist world war just for its own law. But that will be more dangerous for them than the result of last century. Consciousness, anti-unjust war attitude, acceleration & broad flow of information and technology all these will make their destruction very speedy. In this situation, though the revolutionary politics and the spread of the doctrine of communism are still weak in the world arena, but the People’s Wars of Nepal-India-Philipine-Peru, the prospect of people’s war in Turkey-Iran-Afganistan-Bangladesh-Bhutan, and the development of Maoist movement within the USA are adding new dimensions in the current world situation. In this way, emergence of a new revolutionary wave is being evident in the mean time its peak is coming into visible in the South Asian region, especially in Nepal.
Under this condition, a lot of outstanding incidents will occur in the world situation of 21st century with very speedy motion. That has been already proved widely within first 5 years of this century. Its speed will increase more. The present development of human race in the realm of thought and technology can not carry on such an ugly and dirty system for long. So many people’s wars will be built up throughout the world during the first half of 21st century. Despite setback and fall in some cases, many people’s wars will win, and will build socialism. Despite some setback and restoration of capitalism, many numbers of socialism will advance by taking the vision of communism worldwide. The fate of 21st century will be establishment of communism worldwide. At least proletariat class should advance with this perspective. So, the slogan of communism should be raised much more strongly and in global mode in this century than the last one & half century. And for that the MLM should be taken as the basis, and it should be defended very firmly.
It has been mentioned earlier that it is certainly necessary to sum up the past experiences of proletarian dictatorship, when in a country of this world i.e., in Nepal, proletariat class has reached near to give shape of the dream of capturing state power again. Not only that, the possibility of revolution throughout a very big area, inhabited by over half a billion people covering many states of huge India, including neighbouring Bhutan and Bangladesh is growing speedily. Hence, the question of dictatorship of the proletariat should be taken in hand very firmly. Although huge and great achievements were made in building socialism in Russia under Stalin, fundamental ideological and political mistakes had also occurred there.
Later on, Mao corrected these errors. He launched GPCR in China, and newer & higher experiences were achieved in conducting proletarian dictatorship. These enriched our theory in a wide scale and raised it to MLM. After long 3 decades, world proletariat class should not confine themselves in the above mentioned past experiences in a probable new socialism, rather that should be crossed. Especially, it is necessary to review the experiences of defeat in China by giving attention seriously.
How this dictatorship can be exercised more properly that should be taken as a fundamental problem. Serious parties and prominent leaderships of the international proletariat are already paying attention towards this problem and this needs to be developed more. State will die away in socialism the meaning of this is not that state will have to be died away through the weakening of socialist state and dictatorship. Its result will be opposite. Bourgeoisie class (bourgeoisie within the party, inside the country and of international arena) will be able to uproot the weak proletarian dictatorship easily; and they will establish not weak but very strong bourgeoisie dictatorship.
In the context of present world situation, proletarian dictatorship and state is bound to stay in strategic defensive stage for a long period if we want to divide the process of world revolution into three stages, as the three stages of people’s war mentioned by Mao. When the future socialist bloc and socialist system against the world imperialist system will advance along the stage of strategic offensive, crossing the stage of equilibrium and will advance by taking in hand the immediate program of worldwide communism with certainty, only then the question of dying away of dictatorship and states through out the world will come ahead.
The meaning of dying away of state is entering into classless society i.e., communism, in which all the mankind will enter, otherwise none will. That will be a separate stage of world revolution. We cannot settle the entire things about that just now. For that reason, restoration of capitalism in socialist societies, can be prevented only by strengthening socialism i.e., proletarian dictatorship and proletarian state. And in this way, it is possible to advance the mission of world wide communism by protecting and developing socialism against world imperialism.
But proletarian state and dictatorship is not only opposite to bourgeoisie in its class interest, but this should be basically different from bourgeoisie state in case of form and method also. So, making strong the proletarian dictatorship and state do not mean making strong bureaucracy and standing army isolated from the masses in a straight line way. In Stalinist Russia this type of deviation did weaken the proletarian dictatorship, rather making it strong, because, they were the bourgeoisie relations which became strong by it. So, how to make strong the proletarian dictatorship by keeping harmony with its proletarian character and communist mission, that is a big subject of research, discussion and debate.
During GPCR the Chinese proletariat class, under the leadership of Mao, had built up many “socialist new things” in this field. All these things should be developed. And step by step all these should be theorized also. Only in this way, our doctrine can be developed more. So, the proletariat class and MLM-ists should take in hand the responsibility with courage to develop the theory of proletarian dictatorship to face the challenge of 21st century.
Some more questions and debates of fundamental importance are already posed in front of MLM-ists. The target of this article is not to discuss in details on all of those subjects. But those subjects can be presented in short. The discussion about dynamics of imperialism is specially important in this sphere. We are engaged in proletarian revolution within imperialist world system. So, success of this revolution is dependant on unveiling & realizing the laws of imperialism. Great Lenin had established Marxist theory about imperialism hundred years ago. But huge experiences has been achieved during the last 100 years about the laws and dynamics of imperialism — Correct summation of these is necessary. Mao indeed had made some important evaluations in this field. But there is necessity to understand more clearly the laws of imperialism.
A series of serious political line problems like crisis of imperialism, revolutionary situation especially in imperialist countries, principal contradiction in world arena, socio-economic change in 3rd world countries, strategy of revolution, building of revolutionary Soviet in adjacent countries, development of tactical line in utilizing contradictions among the enemies etc are related to this problem. The problem of correct handling of the contradiction between the two i.e., the revolution in one country and proletarian internationalism in imperialist world system is also related to this. There are different opinions in international communist movement on these subjects.
For the solution of those differences in opinion, MLM should have to be developed. And for this, the debate among the MLM-ists should have to be developed. This internal struggle among Maoists should have to be conducted healthily. Because unhealthy debate and struggle ultimately help no other than the enemy. Just now, we cannot say whether our MLM-ist ideology must be raised to its fourth stage of development, or not, to face the challenge of 21st century. But in the mean time some fundamental questions and debates have already arisen.
Genuine MLM-ists must face these in the developing world situation by developing their doctrine, not only by supporting their past experiences and dogmatist utterance of theories. But in this case, one should establish very firmly some initial things. Such as, the internationalist character of the ideology of establishing of communism worldwide by uprooting world imperialist system. From this arises the fact that this ideology can be developed only globally. One cannot oppose theoretically the matter of development of MLM to its 4th, 5th …… & in this way to newer & higher stages.
But the important thing is that in the era of much developed ‘globalized’ world, this development can occur through joint efforts of Maoist revolutionaries from different corners of the world. In this case the different revolutions of the world is capable of make contributions in different fields. Maoists throughout the world can develop the doctrine in higher stage by incorporating and synthesizing these contributions. This is now important, because, there is an unity-centre of world Maoists, i.e. RIM, which is taking advance the task of forming a new type of international.
So, in future, what will be the name of our ideology (how we will call it), that question may arise also as a real question. However, that is the problem of future, not so near. But at present the necessity is to identify the political and ideological line-questions of research, discussion & debate, and develop our political & ideological line by basing on revolutionary struggles and developing healthy debate. We hope that, international proletariat class will be able to develop its own self along this path under the leadership of its valuable global organization ‘RIM’.
Only in this way, it will be possible to make MLM effective and fruitful in 21st century, which will be a period of turbulent and most radical change in the history of human race and the whole human race will enter into a new world. When the human race will enter proudly in the era of a qualitatively newer struggle in a classless-exploitationless communist world, and a real civilization and modern life will be initiated.