Some Problems Currently Arising in the Course of the Rural Socialist Education Movement-14 January 1965

"Be a resolute descendant of your revolutionary forebears!"

“Be a resolute descendant of your revolutionary forebears!”


I. The Situation

Since the tenth plenum of the eighth Central Committee in September 1962, through the development of socialist education in urban areas as well as the countryside, the execution of a series of Central Committee policies by the whole Party, the active efforts of the masses, the broad number of Party members, and cadres, a very good situation has come into being on the political, economic, ideological and cultural, and military fronts in our country. In the past few months, in the entire country more than one million cadres went deeply into the basic level units in the cities and countryside, and the socialist revolutionary movement manifested a new high tide.

All the great accomplishments which our country obtained so quickly during the past few years prove the Party’s general line of building socialism is correct, and at the same time prove further that the Chinese Communist Party led by Comrade Mao Tse-tung is a glorious, great and correct party. Our Party will not betray the trust and hopes of the people of the whole nation and of the people of the world.

In the cities and villages alike, there exists serious, acute class struggle. After the socialist reform of the ownership system was basically completed, the class enemies who oppose socialism attempted to use the form of “peaceful evolution” to restore capitalism. This situation of class struggle is necessarily reflected within the Party. The leadership of certain communes, brigades, enterprises and units has either been corrupted or usurped.

In our work, in the process of moving forward, there exist a great many problems. Practice proves that as long as the whole Party penetratingly and correctly continues to execute the Central Committee’s various decisions concerning the Socialist Education Movement, continues to grasp the principles of class struggle, continues to rely on the working class, the poor and lower-middle peasants, the revolutionary cadres, the revolutionary intellectuals and other revolutionary elements, and continues to pay close attention to uniting more than 95 percent of our people and 95 percent of our cadres, then the many problems which exist in the cities and in the villages will not only be easy to discover, but will also be easy to resolve.

We must resolutely continue the Socialist Education Movement of the past two years and more, and carry it through to the end; we absolutely must not falter.

The present problem is to sum up the past experience of this movement, assess our achievements, and overcome the shortcomings in our work in order to facilitate an even greater victory.

II. The Nature of the Movement

Several ways of presentation:

1. The contradiction between the Four Cleans and the Four Uncleans;

2. The overlapping of contradictions within the Party and contradictions outside of the Party, or the overlapping of contradictions between the enemy and us and contradictions within the people;

3. The contradiction between socialism and capitalism.

The former two ways do not clarify the fundamental characteristics of the Socialist Education Movement. These two approaches do not refer to what society the contradiction of the Four Cleans and Four Uncleans arises in. Nor do they indicate what the nature is of the overlapping of contradictions within the Party and contradictions outside of the Party. They also do not indicate in what historical period the overlapping of contradictions between the enemy and us and contradictions within the people arises nor the class content of this overlapping. If we take a literal point of view, the so-called Four Cleans and Four Uncleans could be applied to any society in past history and the so-called overlapping of contradictions within the Party and contradictions outside the Party could be applied to any party. The so-called overlapping of contradictions between the enemy and us and contradictions within the people could be applied to any historical period. These approaches do not explain the nature of today’s contradictions; therefore they are not Marxist-Leninist methods of looking at things.

The last way of presenting the nature of the movement comprehends the essence of the question, and is Marxist-Leninist. It is decidedly in accord with the scientific theories of Comrade Mao Tse-tung, and with the policies adopted by the Central Committee at various times since the second plenum of the Seventh Central Committee in 1949, concerning the continued existence, during the entire transitional period, of class contradictions, class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, and struggle between the two roads of socialism and capitalism.

If we forget the basic theory and basic practice of our Party during the past decade and a half, we will go astray.

The key point of this movement is to rectify those people in positions of authority within the Party, who take the capitalist road, and to progressively consolidate and develop the socialist battlefront in the urban and rural areas.

Of those people in positions of authority who take the capitalist road, some are out in the open and some are concealed. Of the people who support them, some are at lower levels and some are at higher levels. Among those lower down, some have already been classified as landlords, rich peasants, counter-revolutionaries and bad elements, while others have been overlooked.

Among those at higher levels, there are some people in the communes, districts, hsien, special districts, and even in the work of provincial and Central Committee departments, who oppose socialism. Among them some were originally alien class elements; some are degenerate elements who have shed their original skin, and changed their nature; and some have received bribes, banded together for seditious purposes, violated the law, and violated discipline.

Certain people do not distinguish the boundary between the enemy and ourselves; they have lost their class standpoint; and they harbor, within their own families and among their own friends and fellow workers, those people who engage in capitalist activities.

The great majority of our cadres want to take the socialist road, but there are some among them who have but a hazy knowledge of the socialist revolution, who employ personnel improperly, who are haphazard about checking up on work, and who commit the mistake of bureaucratism….


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