Great Leader of Indian Revolution, People’s War General and Politburo Member of CPI (Maoist) Comrade Koteswarlu is Immortal !
It is Impossible To Stop The Advance of The Movement with The Murders of Revolutionaries !
Another revolutionary general laid down his life in the Indian revolutionary movement. On November 24, 2011 we have lost the great leader of Indian revolution, CPI (Maoist) Politburo member and our beloved comrade Mallojhala Koteswarlu. This would remain another dark day in our revolutionary movement’s history. The fascist ruling clique of Sonia- Manmohan-Pranab-Chidambarm-Jairam Ramesh carrying on an unjust war on the oppressed masses colluded with West Bengal Chief Minister Mamta Banerji and prepared the conspiratorial ‘covert operation’ plan for murdering comrade Mallojhala Koteswarlu.
With the coordination of central IB and West Bengal state intelligence, the most cruel officers in the high-command of the commando forces under the leadership of CRPF Director-General Vijayakumar with the help of counter-insurgency SP Manoj Verma caught him unarmed in a covert plan. The cowardly enemy mercenary killer gang tortured him in the most unspeakable manner and his body was turned into pulp in the most horrible manner. His right eye was pulled out. His fingers were cut off. His hands and legs were broken. His ribs were crushed. They fired a bullet into his mouth and his face was rendered beyond recognition. His feet were burnt on an electric heater. He was brought in the last stage of his life to Burishol in Kushboni forest of West Midnapore district (in West Bengal), shot dead and then a false encounter story was circulated.
Our beloved leader Kishenji breathed his last and his martyrdom proclaimed to the world that revolutionaries who lay down their lives for the people are immortal, that final victory belongs to the people, that no force in this world can stop the victory of the revolution and that final defeat and destruction is that of the exploiting, oppressing classes. Comrade Koteswarlu is a great revolutionary. He was a brave fighter who did not waver in the face of tortures by the enemy.
He set up a great ideal for the future generations by holding aloft the revolutionary flag while preserving the party secrets spilling his warm blood. Comrade Koteswarlu was a revolutionary of the post-Naxalbari generation. Though Naxalbari suffered a setback he was influenced with the lessons of that great revolutionary tide and started his political career when the party was making preparations for a new revolutionary upsurge. He became a part of that upsurge and when that was developing as a higher level People’s War, he developed along with it and became one of the prominent leaders who led that movement.
With a vast experience of 38 years comrade Koteswarlu developed step by step along with revolutionary movement, won the confidence of the entire party cadres and stood as a brave general in the path of Protracted People’s War (PPW). As part of expanding the revolutionary movement he worked in several areas and built mass movements. He worked tirelessly in taking the revolutionary movement to new heights by taking up several responsibilities in the course of development of the party. Ideals such as the superior revolutionary commitment and determination, initiative and presence of mind, comradely love and affection, dedication, study and serving nature of that martyr would remain a model to follow for communist revolutionaries.
He carved a niche of his own in the revolutionary movement under many names such as Prahlad, Pradeep, Sankar, Ramji, Vimal, Kishenji etc. In the initial days, peasantry and close comrades called him affectionately as Koti and Kotanna. Comrade Kotanna fought with unbending courage till the end for the sake of the revolutionary ideology he believed in and dedicated his invaluable services to the revolutionary movement selflessly. He etched his name permanently with blood soaked letters in the history of sacrifices of the Indian revolutionary movement, set up an ideal and imparted an ideal spirit of struggle for many generations to come.
In his long revolutionary life, he played a prominent role in several spheres, dedicated everything for the liberation of our country and finally shed his blood on the historic Lalgarh soil. Our Central Committee is humbly paying red homage to martyr comrade Koteswarlu with respect, a heavy heart and eyes filled with tears on behalf of the entire party, People’s Liberation Guerilla Army, Revolutionary Janatana Sarkars, revolutionary mass organizations and revolutionary masses. It is vowing that we would strive with boundless commitment to fulfill his aims with the inspiration of the ideals he set up and by learning from the movement experiences he imparted. It is vowing that we would intensify revolutionary mass struggles, mass resistance movements and People’s War.
The enemy classes are celebrating that they have given a severe blow to the revolutionary movement by murdering comrade Koteswarlu. But let us wipe our tears and take up this challenge courageously on behalf of the oppressed people and the revolutionary camp. Let us declare clearly to the enemies that we would definitely take revenge for the murder of Koteswarlu by expanding to the four corners of the country and developing the Maoist People’s War to lofty heights. Let us vow one more time with clenched fists that we would sacrifice everything by taking as an ideal comrade Koteswarlu and all the martyrs to fulfill the aims of our beloved martyr comrade Koteswarlu by destroying this exploiting society.
On this occasion, our CC is expressing deep condolences to his mother Madhuramma, his life partner, his other family members, relatives and to all the comrades who worked with him. It is sharing its grief with the party ranks, revolutionary masses and all his friends who have been immersed in a sea of grief after they lost a beloved comrade with his martyrdom. The murderers who killed our beloved comrade Koteswarlu are the same ones who are behind our difficulties, travails and tears. CC is calling upon all of you to fight the enemy with doubled hatred and steeled determination. Let us look briefly at the prominent events in the long revolutionary life of comrade Mallojhala Koteswarlu who fought till he shed his last drop of blood and sacrificed everything for the sake of revolution, not bending in the face of the enemy.
Comrade Koteswarlu was born on November 26, 1954 in Peddapally town of Karimnagar district in the state of Andhra Pradesh. His father was Mallojhala Venkataiah. He was a Congress person who participated in the Indian freedom struggle and supported the struggle against the Nizam in Telangana. His mother was Madhuramma. She developed progressive ideas with the influence of her husband’s politics. They raised their children amidst many financial difficulties and influenced them with democratic ideas.
He studied up to high school in Pedddapally. With the encouragement of his father, he studied the writings of progressive writers and imbibed anti-feudal and progressive ideas since his childhood. In the later period when comrade Koteswarlu carried on revolutionary activities on a vast scale, he always got revolutionary sympathy, moral support and help in all manners from his parents and relatives. During the period of legal opportunities gained after Emergency, their house also served as a revolutionary centre. In those days many comrades used to frequent their home and they were like parents to all of them. They loved all like their own children and helped them.
Though they faced severe repression from the police and their house was destroyed two times they did not surrender to enemy counseling. Their support for the district movement was present in this manner. Their encouragement in the development of Koteswarlu as a revolutionary is immense.
Initiation into The Movements During Student Days
Like his father, Koteswarlu too had patriotic ideas. By the time his high school study was completed, the movement for separate Telangana came to the fore in 1969 and immersed the youth in its upsurge. Young Koteswarlu participated in it militantly. He developed into one of the student leaders of the movement for separate Telangana in Peddapally town. Comrade Koteswarlu was intelligent in his studies. Mathematics was his favorite subject. He was popular among the students. Koteswarlu who completed his high school studies (11th standard) in Peddapally went to Karimnagar (the district head quarters) for higher studies.
He joined the PUC there and was acquainted with revolutionary politics and Literary Friends. With each year, his relations with revolutionary politics deepened. He passed PUC with good marks and joined BSc (Mathematics) and completed this degree course in 1974. In 1973 he burnt the ‘national’ flag in his college along with his revolutionary friends as part of boycotting sham independence day celebrations and got arrested.
He participated in the building of revolutionary student organization in 1974 and laid the foundations for the building of a strong revolutionary student organization in the district. While participating actively in the revolutionary student movement, he abandoned his studies and developed into a full time party activist. In 1975, after the formation of the Radical Student Union (RSU), he strove to spread the student movement in the district.
Kotanna who developed contacts with revolutionary literary and cultural organizations which had already been formed and were involved in the building of revolutionary movement, became a part of the civil rights movement too which emerged newly and was expanding and strove to build these organizations in the district. Comrades Bhoomaiah and Kista Goud had contacts with the revolutionary movement in Adilabad district and were arrested as the accused in the annihilation of a local traitor of the people. They were sentenced to death. Comrade Koteswarlu participated in the agitations that flared up all over the state against the death sentences and also involved the students in the district in the agitation.
On June 26, 1975 Emergency was declared in India. In the most fascist manner, the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi did not spare even the ruling class opposition parties all over the country and put in jail all of her opponents, in their thousands. She transformed the whole country into a jail. Mass organizations came into existence as a result of the serious involvement of our party in the building of the revolutionary mass movement by overcoming the leftist tactics of the Naxalbari period. Soon they became victims of the fascist Emergency.
During the Emergency, all the revolutionary parties and revolutionary mass organizations were banned and had to go underground. Comrade Koteswarlu too went underground at that time. During the dark rule of Emergency, he worked among the rural peasantry of Vemulavada in Sircilla taluq in the district and learnt his first lessons in agrarian revolution. As there were no regular contacts with the secret party leadership during the Emergency, the cadres led their revolutionary life with Bolshevik determination keeping their whereabouts very secret to the enemy and fulfilling their daily needs and traveling expenses etc with the little money they got as funds from revolutionary sympathizers.
Comrade Koteswarlu took shelter near his friends and relatives and transformed them into revolutionary sympathizers and played a revolutionary role in involving his younger brother in the revolutionary movement along with him. During Emergency, police shot dead comrades Surapaneni Janardhan, Sudhakar, Anand Rao and Murli Mohan in a fake encounter at Girayipalli and in this backdrop all the revolutionaries had to conduct their activities in the most secret manner. Comrade Koteswarlu was arrested near Marigadda in Sircilla area while expanding revolutionary activities immediately after the lifting of Emergency.
Rebuilding The Party – 1977 Telangana Regional Conference
To overcome the setback of Naxalbari and Srikakulam, the Andhra Pradesh State Committee (APSC) belonging to the stream of erstwhile People’s War party in its document named ‘Let us review the past and advance the armed struggle’ (Self-Critical Report – SCR) had summarized the positive and negative lessons imparted by the glorious revolutionary upsurge of those days. The party came to the conclusion that only by basing on these lessons and carrying on ideological, political and organizational work by depending on the remaining limited subjective forces we could create another new revolutionary upsurge.
Party concentrated its efforts in this direction while carrying on a serious struggle with right opportunism. SCR document made us change our leftist tactics. It steered our practice in the correct direction. It had a great impact on the party. Emergency was lifted due to the deluge of mass protests against Emergency fascist rule and due to the severe contradictions between ruling classes. As a result favorable conditions were created for open activities.
In the beginning of 1977, Telangana Regional Conference of the party was held in Nagpur. This conference passed the ‘Viplavaniki Baata’ (‘Path for Revolution’) document formulated by the COC in 1974-75. Comrade Koteswarlu attended this conference as a delegate. Later APSC released the ‘August Resolution’ according to the concrete conditions. Plans were formulated to develop the revolutionary movement in its light with new tactics and basing on mass line.
As result of the armed agrarian revolutionary work carried on by firmly implementing this plan, another new revolutionary upsurge began with Karimnagar, Adilabad, Chittoor, Anantapur and Visakha struggles in Andhra Pradesh and with Gaya, Aurangabad, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Palamau and Jehanabad struggles in Bihar due to the efforts of erstwhile MCC and Party Unity streams. As one of the leading comrades of Karimnagar district, comrade Koteswarlu played a prominent role in expanding the revolutionary activities.
New Upsurge of Karimnagar and Adilabad Peasant Revolutionary Struggles
The second conference of RSU was held in 1978. RYL (Radical Youth League) was formed in 1979 and state Rytu-Coolie Sangham (APRCS – Peasant-Laborer Association) was formed in 1981. Comrade Koteswarlu played an active role in these. The development of RSU activities in the state led to the formation of RYL. Students and youth took up the ‘Go to Villages’ campaign since 1978 and gave a fillip to the armed agrarian revolutionary activities in the rural areas. Civil rights movement developed in this course. As a result of this movement, the government was forced to appoint the Bhargava Commission to conduct an enquiry into fake encounters including the Girayipalli fake encounter.
PUCL formed another committee under former High Court Justice Tarkunde. The student leaders of those days strove to provide evidences on fake encounters. Party intensified revolutionary activities in all spheres utilizing the legal opportunities available. Karimnagar and Adilabad districts became centres for peasant movement. It was these movements which laid the foundation for comrade Koteswarlu to develop into a leader.
Karimnagar was one of those most backward districts in Telangana, notorious for severe feudal oppression. In 1977, peasantry rose like a hurricane due to the revolutionary movement which developed in areas like Jagityal, Korutla, Metpally and Sircilla in Karimnagar district. They questioned the feudal exploitation and oppression of ages. The peasants and laborers began the ‘rule of Sangham’ declaring that the rule of land lords will no longer apply.
On September 9, 1978 a huge public meeting was held in Jagityal with thousands of peasantry. This won a permanent place in the history of revolutionary movement as ‘Jagityal Jaitrayatra’ (Victory March of Jagityal). It suppressed the arrogance of the land lords in hundreds of villages and stopped giving ‘fire and water’ (i.e., social boycott) to them. This was a people’s struggle form which terrified the age old feudalism in those days. Sanghams (peasant-labor organizations) calculated all the illegal money forcefully collected from the oppressed peasantry by the feudal lords during their rule and put conditions that all that money must be repaid to the people.
They gave judgments that all the peasants’ lands forcefully occupied by the land lords must be returned to the owners and that village common lands must be identified by the Sanghams and distributed to the landless poor peasants. The land lord class that was alarmed by the upsurge of the revolutionary peasantry, increased pressure on the government and made it proclaim Jagityal and Sircilla areas as disturbed areas.
State unleashed its repression on the rural revolutionary peasantry. Police forces established camps in the villages for protecting feudalism. On the one hand, police intensified arrests of peasantry on a large scale and sent them to jails. On the other hand land lords resorted to the murders of peasant activists like Lakshmirajam and Posetti. Due to this, party was faced with the higher task of transforming anti-feudal struggle into anti-state struggle.
Party began strengthening as a result of the upsurge of peasant movements in Karimnagar and Adilabad districts. After APSC formulated new tactics in the light of the SCR in August 1977, comrade Kotanna was elected the secretary of the party’s joint district committee of Karimnagar and Adilabad which was formed for the first time in 1978. In the party district conference held in the beginning of 1979, two separate district committees were elected for the two districts. Comrade Kotanna took up responsibility as the secretary of the Karimnagar district committee. In the course of expansion of the revolutionary movement to various spheres within a short period, the district level leadership that newly came to the fore in the various movements gained new experiences. Basing on the AP state movement and the Dharmapuri peasant movement in Tamilnadu, the APSC and the Tamilnadu state committee came together and formed the CPI (ML) [People’s War] on April 22, 1980.
The 12th party state conference of AP was held in September 1980. The conference reviewed the SCR document prepared by the APSC on the Naxalbari upsurge and its setback, the correctness and shortcomings of its new tactics and their practice. It summarized the experiences. This conference took up the necessary tactics to take the AP state movement, particularly the peasant revolutionary movement that developed in Karimnagar and Adilabad districts to newer heights.
The most important among them were – building the people’s army following the path of PPW that would establish area-wise political power, sending squads to Dandakaranya (DK) with the aim of establishing liberated areas, expanding the revolutionary movement all over the AP state, expanding the revolutionary movement to five districts as part of developing North Telangana into a guerilla zone and giving utmost importance to achieve unity with the genuine revolutionary forces. The document released under the title ‘Let us develop the peasant movements of Karimnagar-Adilabad districts to the higher stage’ (popular as Guerilla Zone document) explained these tactics. Comrade Koteswarlu participated actively as a delegate in that conference. The conference elected him into the state committee (SC). In the SC meeting held after three months, he was elected as its secretary and became popular among party ranks as ‘Prahlad’. He worked as the state secretary till October 1984 and as an SC member till end 1986. In end 1984, he married a full time party activist.
Tireless Efforts as The APSC Secretary
Braving the severe repressive methods of the enemy, the party and revolutionary movement sustained and were strengthening all over AP and in DK. In 1981, the historic 56-day strike of the coal mine workers of Singareni went on in an unprecedented manner and laid the foundation for the formation of Singareni Karmika Samakhya (Sikasa). All India organizations like the All India Revolutionary Students Federation(AIRSF) and All India League for Revolutionary Culture (AILRC) were formed.
On the other hand, party ranks stood firm in isolating the liquidators and in preserving the correct political line in the internal struggle against opportunism that arose in the party. The then leader Kondapalli Seetharamaiah (KS) who played the important role in the re-consolidation of the party was released from the enemy’s custody in a most daring action by a special guerilla squad. The SC took up a rectification campaign against the six wrong trends that arose in the party. In order to defeat the fascist undeclared war launched by the central and state governments since the beginning of 1985, the SC formulated tactics of self-defence war.
Even while fighting back the severe repression of the enemy all over the country, anti-imperialist and anti-state mass agitations came to the fore. The efforts of mass organizations among the people and united front work in the movements developed. Under the leadership of Agitation and Propaganda Committee (APC) of the APSC, publication of magazines of party and mass organizations and propaganda were carried on a huge scale.
Party formulated correct tactics in student-intellectual and worker fields and worked creatively. People’s resistance actions were conducted on a huge scale all over the state against the repression of the enemy. Revolutionary movement took another step forward by defeating the enemy offensive and preserving the movement. Party cadres were sent in a planned manner to DK from AP, particularly from North Telangana. The erstwhile PW party and the movement developing under it had a strong impact on the genuine revolutionary forces in the country and the revolutionary masses. Comrade Prahlad’s role as the secretary of APSC in all of these is prominent.
Role as The General of PW in DK
By the beginning of 1985, in the vast area of DK, i.e., in the vast forest- adivasi areas stretching from Adilabad in the West to Visakha agency in the East via Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Odisha borders, revolutionary movement, party, people’s guerilla forces and class struggle expanded and developed. As a result conditions were created to form a separate leadership structure of its own for this movement. However, it took two more years to formulate tasks with the higher aim by forming a separate leadership team while facing the undeclared war launched by the enemy, carrying on the internal two-line struggle inside the party in the correct direction and reviewing the DK movement in time.
Under these conditions, in end 1986, APSC decided to lessen the number of members in the SC, to rebuild it as a shorter committee and to send some of the leadership from there to DK. As part of that, comrade Prahlad went to give direct leadership to the DK movement as ‘Ramji’. Comrade Ramji who was in the forefront in guiding the DK movement as the APSC secretary and secretariat member till then, now directly became a part of it.
In the first party conference of DK held in February 1987, comrade Ramji was elected as a member of the Forest Committee (FC) which was formed in that conference. He applied the experience gained in AP directly in DK and stood in the forefront in developing it. He particularly concentrated on the development of Gadchiroli movement. He also went to East Division for some time to fulfill the needs of the movement.
As a FC member he led the movement from 1987 to 1993. He won the confidence of the party cadres, guerilla soldiers, commanders and people. In that period, the DK movement consolidated and expanded. Mass base developed and class struggle intensified. Subjective forces developed. They made the political, military and organizational preparations to carry on guerilla warfare even while resisting the enemy. They launched the guerilla warfare and developed it. Comrade Ramji’s role in developing the DK movement in this seven year period as a participant in it is prominent. The guerilla life he led in DK is an ideal one.
He played a valuable role in the course of development of the movement as a guerilla fighter, commander and party leader. His played an important role in introducing the system of urban organizers and the system of mass organization organizers, in taking up the task of building revolutionary women’s organizations, in encouraging women in various spheres and molding them into brave guerilla commanders and efficient party leaders, in conducting anti-patriarchal struggle, coordinating urban and forest movement and in the manufacturing of grenades and weapons. He was a military expert who realized the importance of military training camps in the practice of guerilla warfare.
He participated in several military training camps as a student and instructor since 1981 to his last days. The military training camps conducted by the party in 1987 and 1989 would remain milestones in the development of guerilla warfare. In these camps relatively better new training was imparted. They introduced to the guerillas the necessary military skills and techniques. Comrade Ramji participated in these training camps as a student and became a marksman. He was a sniper. He implemented discipline which is like lifeline for the soldiers of PW and made others implement discipline too and was ideal in this matter as a commander.
He played an important role in formulating the standing orders by the FC. He played an active role as a FCM and CCM in consolidating and expanding the guerilla squads as platoons and companies. His role was also crucial in building the PLGA. He was an expert in using various kinds of weapons. He studied with interest several military books such as History of rifle written by Engels, military manuals written by Sher Jung and the history of weapons etc. He escaped with knack from the attacks of the enemy to wipe him out several times with the support of the people.
Keeping The Party Line Aloft In Internal Struggles of The Party
The APSC decided to take up rectification campaign against the six wrong trends (non-proletarian trends) inside the SC of the erstwhile CPI (ML) [PW] in 1985. As a continuation of this, the first internal struggle inside the party was conducted in the PW party in 1985. Satyamurthi, Veeraswamy and others in the CC created a crisis situation inside the party. As APSC secretary and member, Comrade Prahlad played a great role in making the cadres of AP and DK stand steadfast and united around the party line during the crisis.
He put in lot of efforts in the party plenums to isolate the liquidationist opportunists, to preserve the party from their conspiracies and for uniting the party. In 1991, the second internal struggle arose inside the erstwhile PW party. The then party secretary KS himself was the reason behind this crisis. On that occasion comrade Ramji fought back very efficiently the liquidationist politics of opportunists and careerists like KS, Bandaiah, Prasad etc. Comrade Ramji played a prominent role as one of the members of the new leadership team in the internal struggles of the party against the opportunist, liquidator cliques that arose inside the party.
Immense Contribution as a CC Member
Comrade Ramji was co-opted into the Central Organizing Committee (COC) in 1993 and was elected as the Central Committee member in the All India Special Conference held in 1995. Since then he took up higher level responsibilities as Bimal and Kishenji. The new leadership which came to the fore after isolating and defeating the opportunists from the party, formulated a plan for expanding the revolutionary movement inside the country and he played a prominent role in this as a member of that team.
Till then PW party was limited only to South India. The CC also took up unity with genuine revolutionaries as an important and immediate task In such circumstances, the CC decided that comrade Koteswarlu must go to West Bengal for expanding the movement. Since then for eighteen long years he lived and worked among the revolutionary masses and comrades of Bengal, learnt Bangla language, understood the social, economic and political situation in Bengal, built the movement and breathed his last there while working as its leader. While particularly concentrating on Bengal, he worked for expanding the party in the various states of North India
Rebuilding The Bengal Movement
After the setback of Naxalbari, though various groups in the ML stream made many attempts, as they were entrenched in left and right deviations and due to their wrong tactical lines, they could not achieve any considerable results. Under such circumstances, comrade Koteswarlu conducted an ideological struggle sharply and firmly against the neo-revisionism of CPM and its social fascism entrenched in Bengal since decades. He got acquainted with the old friends belonging to the revolutionary camp. He conducted sharp polemical debates against the right opportunists and exposed the true colors of those persons who were dogmatic and were known for conducting unending debates.
He worked tirelessly to creatively apply the party line and experiences to the concrete conditions in Bengal. He fought back the ideological and physical attacks of the social fascists on the one hand and the attacks of reactionary forces on the other hand and strengthened the party by fighting back the right politics entrenched since decades in the garb of revolutionary parties. People of West Bengal suffered unspeakable atrocities at the hands of the neo-revisionists.
Under the rule of the social fascists, there was no opposition to the orders of the CPM right from the universities in Kolkata to the remote villages in the state. But they set up a din of propaganda that land reforms were implemented in West Bengal as never before in the whole country and that peasantry were leading happy lives. Revolutionary activities put a stop to that propaganda. As revolutionary activities once again began in several areas in West Bengal, vast oppressed masses became enthusiastic.
Comrade Koteswarlu put serious efforts in West Bengal to rebuild the party, to unite the genuine revolutionaries into the party and to strengthen the party. He began work for building the student, youth and workers’ movements in Kolkata and tried to turn the city into a revolutionary centre. He drove the party leadership there to conduct militant struggles on mass issues by going into various sections in the Kolkata city.
He played a prominent role in formulating the Bengal-Jharkhand-Odisha (BJO) border region perspective and in developing it into a guerilla zone with the aim of establishing liberated area by developing guerilla warfare in that area. He mobilized the support of the Bengal intellectuals and democrats to the revolutionary movement. It was as a result of all of these efforts that the Singur and Nandigram movements came to the fore and later in legacy of Naxalbari, the historic Lalgarh revolt erupted as an upsurge of revolutionary mass struggles.
The All India Special Conference of The Erstwhile PW Party in 1995
In 1995 the erstwhile PW party held its All India Special Conference (AISC). After the eighth Congress held in May 1970 by the CPI (ML), this was the first time that a party conference was held on such a vast scale and at such a higher level. This conference paved the way for advancement by deeply reviewing the revolutionary practice between 1980 and 1995. Comrade Koteswarlu actively and creatively put ideological efforts as one of the members of the steering committee in making preparations for the conference, in formulating draft documents, in reviewing the other important calls given by the party and giving them final shape. This conference enriched the basic documents of the party.
It took appropriate lessons by reviewing the developed movements in AP and DK and the movements that are at a primary level in Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Delhi and Haryana. It decided that work must be carried on with the aim of establishing liberated areas in North Telangana and DK and formulated the necessary tasks for that sake. Comrade Koteswarlu played an important role in all of these. This conference unanimously elected comrade Koteswarlu into the CC. After this conference, united front work advanced a step forward with an All India perspective under the leadership of the CC.
Contacts with Maoist parties of various countries developed. Efforts were put in a planned manner to develop agrarian revolutionary guerilla warfare in North Telangana, North Andhra-Odisha border and DK areas. Concrete perspectives were formulated for the development of revolutionary movement in South Telangana, South Coastal-Rayalaseema and North Andhra-Odisha border (East) Regions in AP. Efforts were put in a planned manner for party consolidation and for the political and military training of party and military leadership and members. As proper importance was given to running magazines and propaganda, the work in this field was done relatively better. Comrade Koteswarlu played a prominent role in all of these works.
9th Congress of The Erstwhile PW Party in 2001
After the unity of the erstwhile CPI (ML) [PW] and CPI (ML) [PU], the newly formed CPI (ML) [PW] successfully held its 9th Congress in 2001 March. The Congress was held successfully with the following successes – enrichment of the party basic documents with the lessons learnt by reviewing the Indian revolutionary movement which was carried on under the leadership of the stream that had united the various groups, individuals and forces in the revolutionary stream of CPI (ML), enrichment of the various party policies and the appropriate tactics as part of these, formulation of tactics keeping in view the concrete conditions of the various movements, consolidation of the people’s guerilla army with the aim of establishing liberated areas by keeping in view the concrete conditions, formulation of guerilla warfare tactics, election of central and state committees with the teams that developed in the course of the development of the movement, creation of ideological and political basis for achieving unity with the MCC, another principal Maoist stream in the country by avoiding the ongoing clashes with it, development of class struggle, expansion of the party, achievement of unity with the movements of the oppressed nationalities and the various democratic movements in the country and an appropriate role in the international Maoist movement by strengthening the relations with Maoist parties in various countries.
Comrade Koteswarlu played a prominent role in all of these as a CC member. He held aloft the party line by exposing the left adventurist politics which came to the fore in that Congress and by keeping aloft the revolutionary flag of the party. In that Congress, comrade Koteswarlu was elected as a CC member and was elected as a Politburo (PB) member inside the CC and as the secretary of the North Regional Bureau (NRB).
Role as The Secretary of North Regional Bureau
As the secretary of NRB, comrade Koteswarlu made several concrete suggestions for the development of Bihar-Jharkhand movement and put efforts to advance it. The efforts put by comrade Koteswarlu are worth mentioning in developing the strategic areas of Koel-Kaimur guerilla zone basing on the analysis of the 9th Congress of the erstwhile PW, in developing guerilla warfare in Magadh, in taking up guerilla bases perspective, in building of people’s democratic power organs, in intensifying the struggles against feudalism and against the private armies of the land lords, in formulating concrete tasks to take up rectification campaign and tactical counter-offensives in a planned manner and in driving the party leadership and ranks in that direction. Comrade Koteswarlu worked hard to develop movements in the student, intellectual and worker fields.
He took initiative to build peasant united front forum in the backdrop of the crisis that arose in the agricultural sector due to the new economic policies taken up by the ruling classes of our country. He strengthened the party structures from below and put efforts to build district committees. He drove the party leadership to consolidate the dalits into class struggle against the entrenched feudalism in the rural areas of Haryana.
He put efforts to develop student, women and cultural movements in Haryana. He gave guidance to consolidate the movement and conduct party propaganda among students and youth in Punjab. He put efforts to consolidate the party forces which were scattered in various states into party structures.
The Historic Unity Congress – Ninth Congress of 2007
The unification of two parties which had been striving to build revolutionary movement in considerable areas in the country and had considerable mass bases and their emergence as a single party – the Communist Party of India (Maoist) has changed the very pace of the New Democratic Revolutionary movement in our country. CPI (Maoist) conducted its Unity Congress-9th Congress in January 2007 in the most enthusiastic atmosphere. This Congress analyzed the party basic documents, policies, POR (Political and Organizational Review) and the vast experience of the four decade long revolutionary movement and enriched them. Party’s understanding towards party, army and united front was improved further.
It gave a clarity towards the central, principal and immediate task and gave a call to develop guerilla warfare into mobile warfare and PLGA into PLA with the aim of establishing liberated areas. In order to develop people’s alternative political power and to speed up the process of building guerilla bases it gave further clarity on construction and destruction. It formulated a plan for rectification campaign against the non-proletarian trends to bolshevize the party. In order to defeat the suppression-annihilation campaign of the enemy all over the country, it gave call for tactical counter-offensive campaigns, wide scale political mass agitations and people’s resistance struggles.
While exposing the conspiratorial LIC policy implemented by the enemy, it gave clarity that this should be defeated with Maoist People’s War by depending on mass base. It decided that unity efforts must be done with nationality movements against the common enemy. In order to come to a correct theoretical understanding towards the international revolutionary parties and forces and for making united efforts with them, it formulated guidance with proletarian internationalism. Comrade Koteswarlu played an active role in the preparations for this Congress, in conducting it and in the discussions. He was elected as a CCM in this Congress and was taken into the PB in the CC. He was part of the East Regional Bureau (ERB) and looked after responsibility of West Bengal as its in-charge.
Role in Unifying The Revolutionaries as a CC Member
After the temporary setback of Naxalbari, in the course of making efforts to once again build a strong revolutionary movement in the strategic areas and among the various oppressed classes and sections, the efforts for unifying the genuine revolutionaries in the country intensified. In the 1990s, this effort began yielding results. Comrade Koteswarlu too put efforts for unity with fellow revolutionaries and organizations in the country on the basis of the Strategy-Tactics, SCR of 1980 and policy documents as the CC member of the erstwhile PW. Particularly, he played the main role in the unity of the erstwhile CPI (ML) [PW] and CPI (ML) [PU] in 1998.
Due to the review done by the erstwhile PW party’s 2001 Congress in ideological, political, military, organizational and tactical matters and its practice and due to the results already achieved by MCCI in these matters a basis was created from the ML stream and the MCCI stream for the unity of the two parties. The role of comrade Koteswarlu in the historic unity of the two prominent revolutionary streams in India on September 21, 2004 and in both the streams becoming a mighty surge after unity is invaluable.
Comrade Koteswarlu participated as a member in the delegation of CPI (ML) [PW] in the bilateral meetings held in several phases between the two parties. Comrade Koteswarlu contributed in the exchange of documents, study, conducting talks in a balanced manner, synthesizing the positive aspects in the practice of the two parties and incorporating it in the new united party’s documents. In the annals of Indian revolutionary history comrade Koteswarlu’s name would be prominently displayed in the unity efforts of communist revolutionaries.
In Advancing Fraternal Relations
Basing on the revolutionary movement developing in various areas in India and the People’s War which came to the fore rapidly, our party worked with initiative in the direction of building a revolutionary coordination centre in South Asia. Under the circumstances where there was no revolutionary centre in the world after the Third International was dissolved and after the death of comrade Mao, RIM (Revolutionary International Movement) was formed with the efforts of some proletarian parties. Even while maintaining relations with them separately, our party developed fraternal relations with the Maoist revolutionary parties and groups in South Asia.
In the seminar conducted on Nationality Question in Delhi in 1996, MCC, PW and Party Unity parties participated with initiative and submitted papers regarding their stand on Nationality Question. These parties played an active role in the formation of CCOMPOSA against imperialism, Indian expansionism and state violence on movements. Comrade Koteswarlu played main role in this effort. Comrade Koteswarlu developed friendly relations with several fighting organizations in the country.
He played a praiseworthy role in developing an united struggle understanding against the expansionism of the Indian exploiting ruling classes by maintaining revolutionary relations with the nationality liberation organizations that are fighting for the right to self-determination including the right to secession in states such as Assam, Nagaland and Manipur. He strove hard for building an united front with the fighting mass organizations of Kashmir. The nationality liberation struggle organizations have lost confidence on the so-called communists who are bogged down in revisionism since decades. His role in developing good relations with those nationality liberation fighting organizations on the basis of our party policy and in making common struggle memoranda of understanding with them is exceptional.
Role in Building The Historic Lalgarh People’s Revolt
Foreign capital flooded our country as a result of the imperialist globalization policies and hundreds of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) came into existence. They are mainly grabbing the fertile lands of the peasantry who are nearly 70 percent in our population and have become a life and death problem. The peasantry in West Bengal opposed grabbing of their land for the construction of Tata’s Nano in Singur, chemical hub of Salem group in Nandigram and Jindal steel industry in Lalgarh and the indiscriminate loot of the vast and invaluable natural resources of our country. They chose the path of struggle stating that they are ready to give their lives but not their lands. In Nandigram the peasantry formed the BUPC and carried on militant struggle.
The peasantry faced many atrocities of the police such as murders, missing of dead bodies, rapes on women, arrests, jails, tortures etc and put up armed resistance under the leadership of the party for their lands. Our party led the armed resistance of the Nandigram people and united with all the forces which could come together for the building of a broad united front. Democrats all over the country including students in Kolkata and the intellectuals in the state rallied in support of the Nandigram people’s struggle.
Buddhadev government had to bend to the people’s might in Singur and Nandigram and was forced to withdraw Tata’s Nano car manufacture and Salem’s chemical hub. Comrade Koteswarlu worked tirelessly to steer these mass struggles in the correct direction towards success. PLGA guerillas blasted a mine under the convoy of Jindal, state Chief Minister Buddhadev Bhattacharya and central steel minister Ram Vilas Paswan who were returning after laying the foundation stone for the construction of Jindal steel industry on November 2, 2008.
Using this as a pretext the state unleashed repression on Lalgarh. People resisted the atrocities of the police forces under the leadership of PCAPA (People’s Committee Against Police Atrocities). In each village hundreds of people united and agitated on a huge scale on their just demands. They dug up roads to stop the police. They held protest rallies with thousands of people. People used all kinds of struggle forms from peaceful struggles like Arandhan (not lighting the cooking fire) to armed resistance in several places. They formed the Sidhu-Kanu militia. The entire Junglemahal area was boiling with militant mass agitations. The ‘Marxists’ who earned notoriety since decades for terrible rule were taken aback with these revolutionary mass agitations.
They resorted to armed attacks with their goon forces such as Harmad Vahini to stop these agitations. State police, central paramilitary forces and Harmad Vahini together intensified the attacks. They resorted to atrocities, burning of houses and destruction. However people did not step back and fought bravely. Guerilla warfare was intensified by conducting ambushes and raids under the leadership of PLGA forces and the Sidhu-Kanu Jan Militia. 24 Eastern Frontier rifles jawans were wiped out in Silda raid and people’s strength was demonstrated.
In the villages, CPM offices which served as torture chambers were destroyed by the people with hatred. Propaganda war was conducted against the psychological warfare of the enemy. Schools, hospitals, protected drinking water facilities and even public distribution system began to be seized by the people to fulfill the basic needs of the people. Lalgarh people’s struggle created tremors in the CPM power centre. Solidarity movement spread all over the country in support of Lalgarh people’s struggle. International solidarity was expressed. Lalgarh people’s power came into existence at a primary level.
Comrade Koteswarlu played the main role in guiding this Lalgarh people’s revolt in the correct direction, in taking up appropriate tactics and implementing them in practice, in strengthening PLGA, party, mass organizations and mass base and to advance with the aim of establishing liberated areas, in arming the PLGA, in training the guerillas and teaching them guerilla warfare techniques. Revolutionaries must learn from his efforts in building Lalgarh movement as a model for the whole country.
Contribution in Ideological, Political, Propaganda and Literary Fields
Comrade Koteswarlu played main role in enriching the party basic documents and in formulating party’s policy documents. While leading the AP movement and while he was the in-charge of Bengal state and as a CC and PB member, he played prominent role in formulating internal circulars and letters. He worked actively in running the magazines Kranti, Radical March, Karmika Patham, Prabhath, People’s War, Vanguard, Jung and Bengal state magazines. He contributed significantly in conducting polemical debates against right opportunists and CPM neo-revisionism. He wrote many poems under the pen names of Godavari, Asidhara, Babu, Anna, Oka koduku (A son) etc.
He contributed extensively in the propaganda sphere. As the spokesperson of ERB and as PB member he stated the stands of the CC through press statements and interviews on various issues. From his initial days he conducted political classes to the cadres and put lot of efforts for their development. In 1996, after he took up the responsibility of Central Political School and SCOPE, he concentrated on teaching theory to the leadership cadres and planned for a teaching campaign. He participated in preparing notes along with teachers on selected topics and imparted them to the party.
Beloved Leader Who Won The Confidence of The Party Ranks
Comrade Koteswarlu won the affection of thousands of party cadres in his 38 year long revolutionary life. He got the immense love of the people. He used to enquire about the needs of the cadres. He remembered and fulfilled the needs of the cadres acquainted with him. He used to meet the available cadres definitely. When not possible to meet, he used to write letters to them. He used to ask the guerillas and his close associates about their experiences in people’s war and gain knowledge.
Whenever cadre met him, they used to feel that they have met their much-loved political teacher who loved them in turn. They felt it was an unforgettable experience to meet him, that they have learnt many things, that they have identified their weaknesses, that he encouraged the good things in them and motivated them. He took special care to provide medical care for the injured comrades in revolutionary movement. One must learn from him how to provide suitable work to them according to their physical condition and how to give encouragement. Comrades facing problems wished for his presence or read letters written by him again and again for inspiration.
Huge Protests Against The Murder of Comrade Koteswarlu
After hearing about the horrible murder of comrade Koteswarlu, the Maoist parties and organizations all over the world, democratic, progressive and revolutionary organizations and peace-lovers expressed their anger and protest against the Indian government and the Mamta Banerji government of West Bengal. They condemned this brutal act in no uncertain terms. They sent condolence message to our party expressing their grief at his murder.
Several human rights organizations, democratic organizations, several writers, artistes, journalists and media friends condemned the murder and demanded independent judicial enquiry. Many prominent persons wrote articles in magazines. In this backdrop an international week of solidarity for the Indian People’s War was declared between January 15 and 22. In a word, the working masses, the democratic and revolutionary camp of our country and abroad felt it was a loss to them. They felt the grief as their own. On this occasion our CC, on behalf of our party is expressing thanks to all these organizations and persons. It is such democratic and revolutionary consciousness and solidarity that gives constant inspiration to the world proletarian mass movements.
The entire party, PLGA and people in all the states in our country and in the guerilla zones wiped their tears and vowed to spread PW to all the four corners of the country and mobilize millions of masses into the revolutionary movement and to create thousands of ‘Koteswarlus’ and several ‘Lalgarhs’ and ‘Narayanapatnas’ to fulfill the dreams of comrade Koteswarlu. They vowed to overthrow this murderous brutal state and make success the New Democratic Revolution.
Let Us Hold Aloft The Aims of Comrade Koteswarlu!
Let Us Intensify People’s War To Create Thousands Of Koteswarlus!
Comrade Koteswarlu was a warrior steeled in the flames of class struggle. Since he joined the party he worked amidst many an ebb and tide and was steeled by becoming a part of the twists and turns, ups and downs of the movement. For nearly four decades thousands of cadres and hundreds of leaders – many of whom were colleagues who worked along with him – laid down their lives in the revolutionary movement.
Severe repression and dangers lay in wait at every step. He stood firmly and bravely in the face of all such odds and led the movement in various areas in the country. He stood steadfast amidst fascist repression and massacres and worked. With his martyrdom the Indian revolutionary movement faced severe loss. Comrades! The enemies are celebrating that they have murdered comrade Koteswarlu. They are eager to wipe out our revolutionary movement completely. This eagerness is not at all coincidental. This is a result of the world economic crisis which is erupting in new forms with each passing day. The flames of anger and protest of the entire people of the world are leaping up to the sky.
The Arab people’s upsurges, the various nationality liberation struggles, the mass agitations of Europe, the ‘Occupy Wall Street’ agitations which have spread like a wild fire to 90 countries, the Maoist People’s Wars that are advancing in countries like Philippines and India, the democratic, nationality liberation and anti-displacement agitations that are going on in our country for land, food and liberation and against the exploitation, oppression, sham development policies of the ruling classes are all a result of these. The conspiracy of the imperialists to loot this world at their will by wiping out these agitations and movements before the economic crisis turns into revolutionary crisis is the real reason for this eagerness.
Dear comrades !
Our CC is still to get clear details regarding the fake encounter of comrade Koteswarlu. The CC is still to examine deeply and concretely the conditions which led to it and the reasons behind the incident. After the CC-3 meeting, our party suffered heavy losses with the arrest of one PBM, three CCMs and the murder of PBM comrade Koteswarlu. In the past five years our party lost most valuable comrades.
It lost great comrades who have gained vast experience in the long revolutionary movement and were experts in respective fields. All of them were heirs of the glorious Naxalbari movement which gave a turn to the Indian revolutionary movement history. At this juncture where we are advancing by fighting back the Green Hunt military offensives of the enemy and putting efforts to build an united movement by mobilizing people of various sections, their martyrdom is a further serious loss. It is not easy to fill their place in the movement. But it is a fact that they all have been born and developed in Protracted People’s War.
It was due to the tough class struggle that they have steeled so. In the future too several such revolutionaries would definitely be made in the same manner. It is the people and the people’s movements that gave birth to such brave and dedicated revolutionaries like comrade Koteswarlu. The worker and peasant oppressed masses would arm themselves with the revolutionary message spread by him from Jagityal to Junglemahal and would definitely advance the Indian NDR along the path of victory. Let us fulfill their losses by advancing the PPW with resolute determination. People are the makers of history. Final victory belongs to the people.
• Let us build liberated areas by fulfilling the central, principal and immediate task set by the Unity Congress-9th Congress!
• Let us protect the leadership and mold our party into an impregnable secret party in a Bolshevik manner!
• Let us fight tirelessly to defeat the fascist Green Hunt offensive which is going on as part of the LIC conspiracy of the enemy! Let us intensify the guerilla warfare!
• Let us adhere firmly to our party line and fight against various kinds of revisionism, right opportunism and left adventurism with the inspiration of comrade Koteswarlu!
• Let us create people’s revolts in the model of Lalgarh and Narayanapatna and strengthen our mass base!
• Let us build strong urban movement and plain movement to advance the PPW!
Let us expand the revolutionary movement to new areas and spheres!
Date : 14 January 2012
Central Committee CPI (Maoist)