CPI-ML (People’s War): Functioning of Military Commissions and Commands Coordination of Main, Secondary and Base Forces



Party Directs the People’s War from the Frontline:

There is no revolution without revolutionary theory and a revolutionary party. Strong Party, People’s Army and United Front are essential to seize political power. Party shall develop people’ war as the main from of struggle and the people’s army as the main form of organization for realization of its objective. Party (Party Committees) must overcome every obstacle by creating all the prerequisites of the protracted people’s war (guerrilla war).

Communist Party can fulfill its aim if it has a direct leadership over the People’s Army and the United Front. Central Committee of the Party concentrates mainly on the development of these three weapons based on the foundation of the workers and peasant masses. The Central Committee drives its lower committees (state, regional, district, area and village committees) to develop these three weapons. These weapons are mutually dependent and develop in close relation, cooperation and corodination. They cannot develop independently of each other.

For example, Party builds up People’s Army. The People’s Army, in turn, further builds up the Party and helps it to develop. The United Front raises the power and capability of the People’s Army. The development of the People’s Army is possible only by utilizing the great potential power of the masses. Due to the power and capabilities of the People’s Army and through the United Front formed on the foundation of the worker and peasant masses, the united force of the oppressed people enhances. Therefore, to build up all the three weapons comprehensively is the duty-bound task of the party committees at all levles.

We shall develop appropriate fields to build up these three strucutres. Each of these has its own significance. Party (party committee at a given level) has the role of leading the People’s Army and the United Front with an authority, command and coordination. In fact, this is the meaning of keeping the ‘politics in command’. Totally opposite of this is ‘departmentalism’, that is, to place a department or field (above the Party) in authority. It opposes Marxism- Leninism-Maoism.

The People’s Guerrilla Army must always keep politics in command. The Commands of various levels function in accordance with the decissions of the party committees of the respective levels. Hence, all of the political orders issued by the Party’s political leadership (party committees) must be implemented compulsorily by the Commands. The People’s Army is the main instrument of all the Communiust Parties for the seizure of political power. The People’s Army shall be formed on the basis of arming the broad masses. This task can be fulfilled mainly due to the concentration by the Central and State Committees.

Therefore, the first and foremost aspect is to establish the Party’s leadership over the People’s Guerrilla Army, even while the army is being built up. To achieve this, the political and organizational level of the comrades who have been participating actively in the military actions shall be raised. Thus, Military Commissions, Party Units within the People’s Guerrilla Army, Party Committees and Commands shall be formed at various levels. Since the field of activity of the members of the People’s Guerrilla Army is military itself, we must develop political consciousness of those members of the army who have been participating in the military actions actively, and give them the Party membership. The same method is applicable to the Militia also.

All the various level party committees from CC to lower level are not part of the People’s Guerrilla Army (Main, Secondary forces). If we are not clearcut in this aspect and if Party remains as Army and Army remains as Party, we cannot develop all the fields. The development of army also will not be wider in this way. Therefore, Communist Party gives its leadership through the party committees in the People’s Army. According to this principle, Party is presently rendering its leadership to our PGA through CMC, SMC/ZMC (Zonal Military Commission), Platoon Party Committee, SGS Party Committee and Cell. The CMC on behalf of the CC and the SMC on behalf of the SC guide in the military affairs at the central and state levels respectively. At present, our PGA is quantitatively and qualitatively at a lower level. It shall be developed from the lower level to the higher level of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). Its development depends on the foundation of the wider Militia. We shall strive to develop the PGA with a strong determination and concentration of the main leadership. The CMC on behalf CC will give politico-military leadership to our PGA. Therefore, the Military Commissions (CMC and SMCs) must function with the following main tasks.

1) Development of various units in the PGA, party units, committees, command organization, and their work-methods properly.

2) Raising the political and organizational level of the fighters, commands and the party committees.

3) Development of military skills, tactics and discipline.

4) Development of improvised weaponary, regularised supply system, intelligency, communications and medical departments.

5) Coordination of the Secondary and Basic Forces with the Main Force.

In a word, the bounden duty of our Commisssions is to develop people’s war (guerrilla war) and the PGA according to our Party’s General Line as well as the resolutions of the Central and State Committees and advance further. That means, our Commissions will have to formulate policies in the military affairs and conduct military operations. The Main, Secondary and the Basic Forces must implement the resolutions and orders of the Commissions. Such a discipline must be raised.



A Command stipulates and issues the orders related to people’s war (revolutionary war) or war. People’s war is conducted in three forms namely, guerrilla, mobile and positional wars. In order to conduct people’s war effectively, there are three wings in a People’s Army, namely, Infantry, Navy and Air force. Regular, Guerrilla and Militia Forces are the three forces in the Infantry. There are Commanding bodies to exercise centralized control over these forces and coordinate them. Though there exists a unified command in a full-fledged PLA, the lower units have sufficient freedom to demonstrate their initiative. There should be an excellent cooperation among the main, guerrilla and militia forces. As a result, unity will prevail among them. PGA wages mainly guerrilla war.

So, there are both, the unified strategy and independent activities. It means, general plans will be drawn by the Commands at higher level (central, state/zonal) and the Commands or Commanders at lower levels will decide the actions to be taken up in accordance with the general plans. Since a single person cannot command larger formations, a Joint Command is required in modern warfare. Joint Command is not possible without stronger Staff. The Staff is not part of the Command. It works directly under the leadership of the Chief of Staff. Responsibilities of the Staff are – study, analysis, intelligence gathering, improving the communications, obtaining supplies, training, research and development, etc. The General Staff (military leadership or Command) must pay more attention to study tactics.

As people’s war advances and the PGA expands, the Staff department must also improvize its work. The improvement of our guerrilla war depends upon improvization of the fields of communications, intelligence, supplies (weapons, ammunition and grenades) of our PGA, development of artillery, medical wing and raising the political and military training and such other staff departments. In order to collect accurate intelligence information till the last possible minute in immediate operations, staff should be appointed in the reconnaissance and communication jobs. Thus, we should improve our work.

We shall keep in mind the situation of the enemy and the struggle, geographic conditions and such other specificities of a country for the mobilization and growth of the subjective forces in that country. Therefore, the specific conditions in our country and the military units evolved during the growth of our Party were kept in mind and decided accordingly about the present commanding method and the Military Command. We decided to form military commands generally at the district, regional/subzonal, state/zonal and central levels. At present, we have a CMC, some SMCs/ZMCs (Zonal Military Commissions) and Sub-zonal Commands.

The District and Area level Commands are not yet formed. The responsibilities and duties of these Commands are applicable similarly to the Commands of the units at all the levels. But the areas of their implementation confine to those of the respective units only. Developing a strong and capable Command (commanders) is the key factor for consolidation of the PGA and its subsequent development as a mighty modern PLA. The PGA can develop if it has a capable command; it can utilise its fighting potential, deploy or retreat its forces in its fight with the enemy properly and in a disciplined manner. Thus, the guerrilla war (people’s war) intensifies and the PGA develops as the PLA. The question of seizure of political power will thus be resolved.


Various Levels of Command:

Command is the one that conducts military campaigns or operations with a definite plan. Party is the one that directs the people’s war from the frontline. According to this principle, party committee members of a given level lead the corresponding level Command as representatives of the Party. A member of the Area Party Committee (simply, Area Committee, AC), Area Commander and Area Deputy Commander are the members of the Area Command. The member of the AC leads the Command. The Military Commanders must implement all of the orders issued by the political leadership. Similarly, a member of the DC, District Commander and Deputy Commander will be the members of the District Command. Therefore, we are of the opinion that the District Command may consist of a DCM and two SGS Commanders until the Commanders grow up to the District level. As the PGA grows, we shall further develop the area level command.

Likewise, there will be Regional and State Commands. In the process of escalation of the people’s war, the CC and the whole party involve at central level through Central Command, High Command and Supreme Command. As the PGA develops and transforms into the PLA and the people’s war grows further, progressive changes take place in the organization and functioning of Command and Commission. Our PGA has three forces. Platoons and the units above that level, and the Action Teams at the state level together are the Main Forces. Various LGSs and SGSs, the Action Teams of the District level, etc., together are the Secondary Forces. Militia (GRD and ARD) is the Base Force. Presently, the Secondary and Base Forces are under the leadership of District/ Divisional Committee.

The Main Forces are under the leadership of the Sub-zonal Commands. We do not have as yet Sub-zonal level party committees. Such committees shall be formed in future. So, at present, the SMC leads the Sub-zonal Command on behalf of the State Committee of the party. The State Committees coordinate all the three forces in the state level military affairs through the SMCs. Functioning of the Command: The Commands formulate concrete operational plans according to the specific conditions of their respective areas as well as the potentialities of their forces and conduct the military operations or the military campaigns. They control and coordinate all the units under them. Military policies and decisions coming from above reach he forces through the Commands.

A Sub-zonal Command consolidates the discipline of the military forces, develops continuously the political consciousness, fighting capabilities and the tactics of attacking the enemy at his weaknesses. It procuress all kinds of the supplies. It will attain a thorough grip on the terrain of its area. It develops the departments of communications, intelligence and medical, and also the required technicians. It secures various dumps. Thus, the Sub-zonal Commands procure all of their requirements for developing the people’s war (guerrilla war) in their respective areas independently with the cooperation of the Area and District Committees and by the coordination of the CMC and SMCs on behalf of the Central and State Committees. The quantity and quality of the weapons in the Guerrilla Force are usually lesser in comparision with those of the Regular Army. Nevertheless, Head Quarters, functioining of Staff, etc., are generally in the same pattern, both in the Guerrilla Force and the Regular Army.

The units of the Regular Army can move to any place, whereas the Guerrilla Army performs its activities in a confined area. We must establish political and military leadership in all the units of Guerrilla Army (Guerrilla Forces) so as to enable every unit to conduct its activities independently. In practice, each of our squads has a Party Cell, a Commander and a Deputy Commander to implement political and military tasks.

Similarly, we have a Platoon Party Committee, a Commander and a Deputy Commander as a political leadership in a platoon. The HQ in a platoon comprises the Platoon Party Committee Secretary, the Platoon Commander and the Deputy Commander. The Platoon Party Committee Secretary fulfills the responsibilities of a political commissar. There will be Staff also in the platoon according to the requirements of war. In the same way, a Company will have a Company Party Committee, a Company Commander and a Deputy Company Commander for the political leadership of the Company in future. The Company HQ comprises of the Company Party Committee Secretary, the Company Commander and a Deputy Company Commander. The same method should be followed in Battalion level also.

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Main Tasks of PGA Platoon or Company HQ:

1) Raising the political consciousness of the fighters and Commanders of the PGA unit.

2) Developing the fighting potentiality of the unit, techniques and tactics.

3) Strengthening the discipline of the fighters.

4) Carying the military policies and decissions coming from above to its fighters.

5) Preparing its fighters to fight with the spirit of severe offensive in any of the difficult times. Political unity, military unity and attaining coordination between the political and military activities are very important to achieve our political objective. Therefore, various Committees of our Party and the Commands shall enhance the people’s war unitedly with a close cooperation and coordination.


Coordination of Main Forces with Secondary and Milita Forces:

We shall try to save our forces and annihilate those of the enemy as much as possible in the guerrilla war. To achieve this objective, we shall take up small, medium and large scale actions with proper coordination. To take up these actions effectively, we built up suitable organizations namely, the Main Force, Secondary Forces and the Base Force. The Main Force shall concentrate all of its forces – Platoons, Company and Batallion, etc., to annihilate the enemy and seize weapons.It must facilitate to continue its war manuevres as it thinks appropriate (as to strike at the enemy’s weakness). By its nature, the Main Force has more potentiality to annihilate the enemy. More over, it is posiible to identify the weaknesses of the enemy quickly and annihilate him due to the increased cooperation o fthe Militia and Secondary Forces (LGSs and SGSs).

Our Area, District and State Committees and the Commands shall formulate the plans of operation in a manner to achieve the target. The Militia and the Secondary Forces in an area are required to participate in a variety of tasks such as, intelligence gathering (through the Militia, LGS, SGS, mass organizations and party organizations) to find out the weaknesses of the enemy, not letting out the news about our forces, working as guides, transporting all kinds of supplies, sentry works, finding out the movements of the enemy and informing the Command immediately about the enemy’s situation when the Main Force concentrates in the area to strike the enemy. In addition to the above mentioned tasks, the Militia and the Secondary Forces shall also sabotage whenever necessary the communication and transport facilities of the enemy.

Such a coordination will certainly help the Main Force to concentrate its forces in time and secretly to attack surprisingly on the enemy’s weaknesses and annihilate him. By conducting such actions efficiently, the Main Force is able to provide flexibility and protection to the local organizations, LGSs, SGSs and Party Committees. The coordination must be such that the Militia and the Secondary Forces shall take up such actions as to frustrate, harass, stop, terrorise and trap the enemy so as to make the major military actions of the Main Force successful.


Coordination of Militia with Secondary Forces:

The LGSs rally the people politically and organizationally. They mobilize, organize and lead the people of a specific area in the political, economic and social movements. Therefore, they are always in close relations with the local revolutionary masses, various mass organizations, party units, Militia and the Revolutionary People’s Committees. The Militia avails of the protection from the SGSs and the Action Teams.

The enemy has been employing special forces for combing and trying to single out LGSs by destroying our local organizations. The SGSs, Action Teams, LGSs and Militia shall strive to annihilate the enemy through the land-mine warfare and thus, scuttle such efforts of the enemy. The Secondary Forces shall coordinate the programme of the Militia in such a way that the enemy will be dragged always into smaller guerrilla operations so as to harass and make him tired. The LGSs shall get such a support from the Militia. The Secondary Forces by nature fight against the enemy’s smaller forces.

They go for safety in some contexts when the enemy launches a big campaign. They participate in the counter-offensive campaigns of the Main Forces. Being smaller guerrilla units, they are always exposed to the enemy’s attacks and the danger of extinction. Therefore, they must keep their secrets by following the secretive methods. They must always be on move and faster in their work.

They must fight the enemy courageously and with a strong determination either when they face him or even when attacked by him. The people, mass organizations, party organizations and the Militia shall increase their vigilance against the informers in villages and control them by punishing. Protecting the lives and the properties of the people is a part of the task of the Militia and the Secondary Forces. The Area and District Committees and the local (area) Commands shall make the effort to achieve such a coordinated work style of the Secondary Forces and the Militia.

The Militia and the Secondary Forces shall continue to wage the guerrilla war in the areas around their Guerrilla Bases, thus draw and engage the enemy into the smaller operations, harass him and make him tired. We shall initiate and develop guerrilla war in towns and plains by using the Militia and the Secondary Forces (smaller guerrilla squads). Thus, these forces will be helpful to the guerrilla war in the mountainous area (in order to concentrate and annihilate the enemy) and guerrilla base areas. The Main Forces shall be increased in the GB areas.Such an effective coordination by the District Commands, Sub Commands and SMCs will yield good results.

Base Force:

The People’s Militia is the Base Force in the PGA organization. The PGA’s development is not possible without the broader People’s Militia. The role of the People’s Militia is very crucial for the development of the PGA. We must intensify the guerrilla war while building up the People’s Militia. The People’s Militia shall be developed on the basis of particular and appropriate slogans. Our party committees must take initiative to develop the Militia organization immediately before losing the existing favourable situation. Expansion of the PGA in large numbers is possible because the Militia is the main recruiting centre.

The fighting potential and discipline of our Main and Secondary Forces will increase due to the recruitment of the most active fighters from the Militia. We shall establish party in the Militia by raising such a political consciousness as to represent the people’s interests and have the outlook to serve the people, arming the people of the basic classes, and by developing the persons who participate actively in the military actions as the party members. We shall form the Militia units in the plains and towns most secretly. They must frustrate and annihilate the enemy and thus stand in support of the PGA.

We shall revolutionize the Militia according to the situation and the party’s policies. Thus, they shall be developed through the political and military training. The Militia Commanders and Deputy Commanders must be developed quickly. We shall educate them politically and militarily by reviewing concretely in the concerned meetings the actions and the activities of the Militia and drawing correct lessons. We shall assign appropriate persons form party’s side for the development of the Militia. We must raise the political spirit of every Militia member in such a way that they wish to join the Main and Secondary Forces. We shall also raise their enthusiasm so that they join the PGA in response to the party’s call. A balance must be maintained in such a way that the Militia do not lose their independent existence while their members are recruited into the PGA. Methods of democratic centralism and discipline shall be promoted in the Militia. The Militia must recognise that subjecting the enemy’s forces continually to the attacks and harassment is their important task.

The Militia’s responsibility is to protect people and their power in villages. The Militia shall coordinate their activities to help and support the Main and Secondary Forces. Sub-committe ‘s leadership shall take care of the Militia.

Main Forces: Platoons, Companies, Battalions, Regiments, Brigades as a Regular Army.

Secondary Forces: Guerrilla squads, Platoon, Company – as Guerrilla Forces.

Base Force: Broad Militia shall be developed at various levels. Subsequently, they must be developed as PLA.

Qualities of PGA’s Command and Commanders:

Firstly, our Command leadership and Commanders must have class consciousness and conviction that the Marxism-Leninism-Maoism is their theoretical guide. They must be polite to the cause of New Democratic Revolution and Party. Moreover, they must dedicate themselves to the interests of workers, peasants and the oppressed masses. The Command and the Commanders shall have political strength, a strong revolutionary conviction to fight decisively and severe class hatred against the enemy. They must be in a position to fight daringly and valiantly in any of the hard conditions and work hard.

They must have discipline of a high standard, organisational spirit, good fighting and work styles and creativity. They must have a strong determination to face any obstacle and go forward by resolving such hurdles. They shall have the preparedness to sacrifice even their lives to fulfil all kinds of tasks. Giving highly organised military, political and cultural education to our commanders (leadership) and fighters (soldiers) is a decisive factor in enhancing the fighting capacity of our army.

Our commanders shall try to acquire a deep knowledge about political, military, scientific, technical and economic subjects. They shall also strive to attain the capability of commanding from the forefront of the fighting operations during the war. The Command and the Commanders shall study with a deep interest about people’s army, party’s political and military line, military science, MLM principles, struggle experiences and traditions of the people of our country, and also about the enemy. By gaining knowledge and expertise on these, the Command and the Commanders can efficiently conduct the people’s war.

They shall also try to learn creatively, but not mechanically, from the experiences of the past revolutions in various other countries led by MLM parties. At the same time, they shall try to know recent developments in military science that are taking place in the world. They must work hard to develop their capabilities to lead and train their forces, command and move various forces in a coordinated manner and take up well coordinated military operations. They must have firm conviction to fight and win. They must respect, help and protect people.

The Commanders can lead their forces efficiently in the people’s war if they are courageous, intelligent, strict, honest and have class- affection. The Command and the Commanders shall pay greater attention in the study of tactics. They must learn the tactics in the concrete conditions of our country. Every nation and tribe have their own specificities and tactics. We must study those tactics also. We have three decade-long history of struggle. We implemented various types of tactics during the course of the struggle. We must study those tactics and learn the useful ones from them. We must always be vigilant about the enemy’s tactics and formulate counter-tactics to combat those. We must find out and attack the enemy’s weaknesses rather than his strong points. The tactics of the enemy reveal his weaknesses. Efficient military maneuver, plank attack, deceiving the enemy, concentrating the forces, weapons and their usage, following the suitable military formations, utiising the terrain, fire and movement, speed, secrecy, strong determination in fighting – all these are the basic aspects of the tactics.

Especially, we must correctly understand about the speed, secrecy and strong determination in fighting – the most fundamental principles of the guerrilla war. The policy of conducting a military operation (ambush, raid, attack) or war, as comrade Chu Teh said is applicable for us also.

“How we are to fight depends on the weapons we possess, the kind of enemy before us, and the specific time and place. This means that a battle has to be planned and fought on the basis of our own equipment, the strength of the enemy, and the factors of time, terrain, and so on. This new method of conducting war is both practical and materialist.”

Fighting capacity and fighting value of any particular unit (Squad, Platoon, Company, Batallion, Regiment) depend on the preparedness (Comrade Chu teh said, if one is prepared for a war means half victory is gained), health condition, weapon power, experience in war and skills of the PGA soldiers and the experience of the Commanders. Most of our Commanders and young fighters of our PGA do not have experience in conducting war. We will have to form new units (SGSs, Platoons, Companies, etc) during the process of expanding the PGA. Such new units also will have no experience. Therefore, political and military training to raise their struggle consciousness and military efficiency must be our major task. Otherwise it is not possible to either gain success or even to minimise losses.

We must enhance class consciousness, sacrificing nature and revolutionary heroism of our fighters in accordance with the changing circumstances. Our PGA fighters are most valuable for the people’s war. It is most important to mould them as revolutionary heroes. Otherwise we cannot attain our revolutionary goal. Our revolutionary war needs sacrifice. Therefore, our fighters and Commanders must not be afraid of the essential sacrifice. However, it is important to avoid unnecessary losses. Thus, we can practice the principle of people’s war – annihilate the enemy and minimise our losses to the extent possible.

Our commanders shall understand that in any operation (ambush, raid, attack) or in any war front, utilization of the capability of military leadership begins as soon as a particular unit (Squad, Platoon, Company, Battalion) engages the enemy. The Commanders must have to two equally important factors in their genius. The first factor is weapon power while the other factor is the art of effectively utilising the weapon power by deploying it at a proper position in the operation or battle field and firing at the enemy. Such a movement of weapon power will develop new methods and revolutionary changes in the battle field. The power of the tactics will unfold when the weapon power is integrated with movement.

Duties of PGA Commands and Commanders:

We already mentioned above that our fighters are most valuable for the people’s war. Therefore, we must pay greater and prior attention towards the political and military training, health and such other necessities of the PGA fighters at any place and in any circumstances whether it may be in an action or in a campaign or war front or outside the war. This is the main responsibility of the Commands and the Commanders of our army. Another major responsibility of the Commanders is to fulfill the task of conducting any operation, whether it may be an ambush, a raid or an attack either without any losses or with minimum losses.

Whenever losses occur, causes of the losses must be thoroughly analysed with facts and figures and the appropriate lessons shall be drawn. Acquiring skill in leading and commanding troops in a war or during the time of conducting an operation means fulfilling their tasks with the least possible losses. Commanders must have a thorough assessment of the forces (squads, platoon, company, battalion, etc) present under their control and detailed figures at their fingertips about the equipment (weapons, grenades, ammunition explosives, etc). They must know the situation of their own units and what they can do in a given situation.

Then only, they should assign work to their units. When the task assigned to the Commanders is not in conformity with the fighting capacity of their unit, the Commanders’ duty is to understand the enemy’s weaknesses, select appropriate action according to their units’ fighting capacity and fight the enemy. Thus, the enemy’s numerical and technical superiority will not affect us. The Commanders will get training by making thorough preparations for each and every operation and leading the PGA fighters in the operations. Thus, they will also be able to increase their capability to command in all of the tactical counter-offensives (ambush, raid, harassment actions, etc). To command means anticipation, by the Commanders, of any new eventualities that may arise in the midst of a planned operation.

They must be in a position to observe all the aspects carefully and retaliate immediately any unexpected attack of the enemy. They must always be alert and continuously know about the new events and developments that occur in the war between us and the enemy. They must be quick and active in implementing the decisions taken by them. Thus, the Commanders will be able to have a firm grip on their units in the course of an operation.

They must not leave their units even for a moment to fend for themselves without giving any orders. Fighters must always be under the command of the Commanders. When the units are separated from their Commander in any untoward circumstances (for example, if martyred accidentally), they must display initiative and continue to do as much as possible in accordance with the already given instructions, while considering those circumstances. Commanders should pay special attention to the intelligence service, reconnaissance and security.

We have already written this in our BMC and concerned committees passed and passing resolutions on this. But not practising. Only by putting special effort on this, a good change will occur in ambushes, raids, harassments or any other actions and guarantee will be attained to fulfil successfully the tasks taken. Intelligence gathering remains the key factor in military operations. A concrete plan should be made before any action or military campaign. Preparations should be made. All factors involved in conducting that action should be tested with reconnaissance.

Commanders bear in mind the factors that arise in the course of action. They must be able to take correct, good decisions corresponding to their particular situation (i.e. using situation favourably). Formulating tasks, correct grouping of forces, giving political and military training according to target, acquiring supplies, putting arms and ammunition in good condition, correctly using people’s cooperation – these are all duties of our commanders. When an operation (ambush, raid, attack) is continuing, commander should go near the enemy indirectly and coordinate the assault, scout, security support and stop groups, maintain regular contact with them, having reserve forces in his disposal and using them according to the changing circumstances.

Studying war, efficiently applying modern military hardware (all types of weapons, grenades, ammunition, communication, artillery etc) in the war front is the important task of PGA commanders. Commanders should follow iron discipline, and protect it in the PGA. Command and commanders of our PGA always be alert on the enemy’s covert operations, his attempts to infiltrate agents, spies into the PGA ranks and shall foil his attempts. All the proven enemy-infiltrated spies, agents and coverts must be annihilated and their names should be announced. Coordinating war by maintaining regular link with the lower units under its leadership and making the operation success is the responsibility of command (HQ). And it is also the responsibility of the command to provide medical facilities for the injured and ill-health comrades.

It is also the responsibility of the command to make arrangements for providing supplies in time to the PGA.


Daring, able, dedicated comrades should be selected as commanders and secretaries to the different units of PGA i.e., relatively those who are tested in struggle should be chosen. Commanders who are good in quality and quantity should be developed with long perspective according to plan.

We must give political and military training to increase the ability of commanders separately in accordance with our people’s war requirements. We should tell the fundamental difference between our PGA/PLA command and bourgeois feudal command. Comrades who are not trained will loss courage internally when they encounter enemy. If they are not habituated to hard drills they will fall in confusion and hesitate in war. It is essential that commanders should implement unhesitatingly and strictly all the directives issued by the party leadership. True comradely relationship should established between fighters and commanders and in between fighters themselves. They must give preference to military discipline when they are in duty. Unity should prevail among PGA fighters and people.

With that on the one hand the operations done by PGA will be helpful in promoting mass struggles and in another the political, economical, cultural and military support given by the people will be more helpful to people’s war. PGA can smash the enemy’s communication network with the help of people. Our comrades should correctly understand the specific character of this principle.


At present our people’s guerrilla fighters and commanders are less in number. The quality of their weaponry is less. No proper training. We must concentrate to change this situation. The number, weapon-training of the PGA men will be inferior up to a lengthy period in comparing with the enemy. In these circumstances we must select proper combat forms favourable to our PGA to smash and defeat the enemy. PGA develops from learning through struggle. It cannot develop without participation in guerrilla war. We cannot make people’s war success unless we are having sufficient number of people’s fighters. Hence we must increase the quantity and quality of PGA.

Political and physical fitness factors decide PGA men’s quality. Political character, combat capacity, operational methods proceeds from political consciousness. There is direct relationship between physical fitness and combat capacity. As we are waging class struggle, class war, we must develop class consciousness in our PGA men. Those who are active in mass struggles should be recruited to PGA and political, military training should be given.

They must be moulded in such a way that they should become PGA fighters having the qualities of boldness, filled with class affection, enthusiastic (to learn eagerly), dedicative, having the initiative, observing discipline. They must know their aims and attaining them. Command and commanders should concentrate to mould them as able fighters. By bringing change in their political nature, we can increase their cultural, technical level and military fighting capacity. The concentration should be according to the specific conditions. In the same way we must study and observe their rights and wrongs, rectify their mistakes and develop iron discipline among them. The army having no politics treats people as enemies. Commanders and command should be ideal to PGA men.

They should be in forefront in hardships and acquire skills in military affairs. Enemy is having good arms like SLR, AK, LMG, artillery (mortars), aircraft, tanks and poisonous gas etc. The quality of our arms is very poor. This situation prevails in guerrilla war. All the weaknesses are not powerful. They have their limitations. Every weapon has its limitations as well as particular usage. Countering methods are also there for example : modern armoury like –aircraft, artillery and tanks will not be useful at nights and having some minimum use only. They will not be useful in surprise attacks or short range operations.

Other thing is, if they are used in such circumstances, their total capacity cannot be realised. It is not possible to bring artillery to everywhere and fix the target. Our arms are – knives, axes, bow and arrows, spears, barmars, 12- bore guns, HGs, pistols, rifles (.303, SLR, AR), one or two LMGs, land mines, claymore mines etc. We can effectively use these weapons if we grasp the enemy’s weaknesses and use them, if we fight with high morale sing the particular atmospheric conditions and favourable terrain. Even though our weapons are backward, our PGA men and comrades are politically conscious.

Hence, if we protect their accuracy, if we learn to use them confidently and capably we can defeat the well-armed enemy. Our practice in the past as well as the history of world revolutionary struggles proved this fact. We can improve our weapon position with the enemy’s weapons. The command should concentrate on removing the unscientific ideas regarding our arms (wrong ideas) in our PGA men and commanders and educate them. PGA smashes the enemy by choosing necessary struggle forms in accordance with our arm power and fighting capacity. PGA men are fearless about the enemy as they are fighters equipped with class consciousness. They will not indulge in positional warfare or pressurise to do it. That means, by grasping the enemy’s weaknesses PGA will carry out ambushes, surprise attack, night assaults, harassing them, destroying his communication lines – in this way it will annihilate the enemy forces and acquire modern arms.

The commanders of PGA should not be reckless during attack. That means, never try to attack the enemy’s strong points with the heavily engaged enemy force. Commanders should be well-aware of the good and bad factors of his forces. Guerrilla units cannot inflict heavy blows on the enemy if they are scattered. Command or commanders should always stay with their forces and it is essential to remain with the main force units. They must become planners and draft plans and participate in their rehearsal. After drafting the final plan, it should be speedily implemented. They should plan small, medium and big actions, coordinate and implement them. Command and commanders should concentrate on harassing, disturbing and annihilating one of the enemy’s units with surprise attack.

These are only the efficient tactics. Command and commanders should depend upon persons having firm conviction would be the key factor for any action. Those who are capable in fulfilling their responsibilities should be selected to that actions. We should select commanders, who can take decisions in acute conditions and capable of leading the army. They should have decisive nature. Though we are having good plan, weapons, preparation and surprise in ambushes, raids and attacks, if our fighters lack decisiveness and firmness in fighting it is not possible to succeed the actions.

In ambushes raids assault, stop groups, sentries and mine groups should start attack as per the plan and defeat the enemy. Instead, without considering the actual condition (overestimating the enemy), we are coming to hopeless estimations and participating in actions hesitatingly, resulting in failure of those actions. When in the midst of implementing a plan, failure in taking decisions accordingly, and lack of firm control on the prevailing situation leading to failure, even though those actions were started successfully. Instead of control on the situation and decisive capability, doubts and fear is taking place. When the action is going on, every fighter should report to the commander the actual enemy position without any exaggeration.

They should not report unseen things as seen and over or under estimations. If they report falsely, wrong decisions will be taken. Our fighting capacity will be diminished. In such circumstances we must show the courage, intelligence and strictness. Enemy can use our faults in his favour and destroys us. Hence, the reasons for the indecisiveness in our fighters and commanders must be examined. Our experience reveals below reasons: Those who are backtracking in their work, inactive, confusing, inattentive persons and who unable to fulfil even their primary duties or tasks cannot be decisive in actions. Therefore, our training should be to make them come out of their weaknesses. Our commanders at all levels must follow strictly mass line in all of our military activities. It is essential to issue orders continuously in a battle or action and make it successful.

Likewise it is also essential to implement centralism in the democratic centralism. At the same time there is mass line also in all of our activities besides the orders and centralism. There must be democracy between the people’s guerrilla soldiers and the people’s guerrilla military officers in all of our military activities. Bourgeois army oppresses people. But, the people’s guerrilla army, unlike the bourgeois army, serves and protects the people, only when mass line is implemented in all the matters between the people and the people’s guerrilla army. We already defined the people’s war as the war waged by the people.

Our Commands must take utmost interest in preparing people to participate in this war actively and fight the enemy at all levels and always. People’s active support is very much essential for the successful conduct of the war or any action. People’s active support is rendered if party committees and mass organizations are strong. People and local party units must be educated from the beginning so as to implement our Command’s calls and orders.

By doing so, people’s active help increases even during the enemy’s attacks, enabling us to increase our tactical offensive campaigns and other armed actions against the enemy, and thus the intensity of the enemy’s attack can be reduced. The central task of our Command is to enrich our military knowledge and shape up our forces as the superior people’s guerrilla army forces. The military capabilities of our Primary and Secondary forces of the P.G.A. are very limited as of now.

Therefore our task is to train up our forces to face the intensity of the enemy’s attack. The way of thinking and planning of the commanders of our Command must be to keep the political work at the priority position, to learn and teach the military art, and not to make the routine works as the main. Then only we can intensify the guerrilla war, move the people and the P.G.A. forces efficiently in the war and march past towards the victory.

Central Military Commission

November, 2002

CPI-ML (People’s War)

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